Vol 59, No 3 (2019)

Marine Phisics

Energy of the jets of the Antarctic circumpolar current and of their eddies in the surface layer of the Southern Ocean

Koshlyakov M.N., Savchenko D.S., Tarakanov R.Y.


Kinetic energy of six jets of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and of the cyclonic and anticyclonic synoptic eddies generated by these jets is studied in application to the surface layer of Antarctic Circle. The study is based on the data of satellite altimeter observations during 1993–2015 available in the Internet (http://aviso.altimetry.fr). Main results of the study: a) five times excess of the mean energy of jets proper over the mean summary (cyclones plus anticyclones) energy of eddies; b) prevalence of the energy of middle jet of Subantarctic Current over energy of the rest ACC jets in the whole of Antarctic Circle; c) two times excess of mean energy of cyclonic eddies over energy of anticyclones in the upper ocean layer.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):325-334
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Marine Biology

Spatial distribution of phytoplankton in the subarctic estuary (Kem’ river, the White Sea)

Radchenko I.G., Ilyash L.V., Shevchenko V.P., Zdorovennov R.E., Novigatsky A.N., Politova N.V., Tolstikov A.V.


The species composition and biomass of the phytoplankton (Ph) as well as hydrological characteristics were estimated in 4 spatial surveys in the subarctic tidal estuary of the Kem’ River and adjacent area of Onega Bay (White Sea, Russia) in June–July 2008–2011. The study area was divided into 3 zones (the river zone, the gradient zone and the marine zone), based on the salinity variation of the surface layer. In total, 318 species of Ph were registered, 143 species are found in the river zone, 225 — in the gradient zone, 106 — in the marine zone. The greatest number of species in all zones was represented by diatoms. The highest biodiversity of Ph in the surface layer was detected in the gradient zone. The averages of total biomass of the Ph in the surface layer (Bo) at different years varied in range 2.8–16.9 mg C/m3. Although Bo did not differ significantly between zones, with the exception of 2011, when Bo was the highest in the river zone, dissimilarity in the structure of the Ph in the river, gradient and marine zones were 61–95%. The similarity of the Ph at the stations of each zone was poor (22–53%) with the lowest values in the gradient zone. It is postulated that the tidal cycles determine the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the composition, structure and abundance of Ph in the Kem’ river estuary in summer.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):335-346
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Characteristics оf growth and fluorescence оf certain types оf algae under acclimation to different temperatures under conditions оf cultures

Akimov A.I., Solomonova E.S.


The temperature rate growth dependence and the relative variable fluorescence, (Fv/Fm) of some of marine planktonic algae from the culture collections were investigated. The algae optima temperature growth (Topt), upper and lower limits tolerant zone of species, and in some cases, changes in the dynamics of these parameters outside the tolerance zone were determined. The similarity of species temperature characteristics with vegetation conditions these species in the nature was observed. Prolonged stress exposure to low positive temperature (4–6°C) was reversible; recovery of the growth rate and Fv/Fm was observed immediately after the increase of temperature. At temperatures above Topt on 2–3°C for diatoms was observed gradual degradation of culture, which, depending on the duration of exposure can lead to the death of the algae. Dinoflagellate species of the summer growing season had higher temperature resistance, and remained viable at temperatures above 5–8°C high Topt, due to lower growth rates. Rising part temperature dependence of the rate of growth approximated by a linear relation, the regression coefficient is 0.08–0.13 for diatoms and 0.03–0.11 for dinophyte. The normalized values for this parameter (the relative value of change in the growth rate, %) was 5.3±0.4 for diatoms and 6.4±0.5 for dinophyte at 1°C of temperature change. For dinophyte species were also been observed larger values of the parameter Q10. The value Fv/Fm for most species had high values in the whole temperature range, in which maintained a stable growth of algae. The fall of this parameter was observed in increasing the border of tolerance zone, and was associated with inhibition of thermal growth processes.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):347-359
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The modelling of adaptation and photoinhibition of marine phytoplankton to light

Zvalinskii V.I.


The using in literature approaches to modeling photoacclimation and photoinhibition of marine phytoplankton and their deficiencies are analyzed. The new approach to modeling of photoadaptation with use of earlier developed quantitative description of the photosynthesis of the marine algae is considered. In base of the approach lies the idea about that that adaptation is due to light and dark destruction key components of photosynthesis (the photosynthetic pigments and enzyme system of dark reactions), on the one hand, and their restore by the biosynthesis from the products of the photosynthesis (the positive feedbacks), with another. The model scheme is presented by the concentrations and rate constants, there is the notion «quotas» not used. The model satisfactory describes the known in literature curves of photoadaptation, as well as to explain the main effects of this phenomenon.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):360-372
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Bacteria and viruses in Arctic Sea ice

Sazhin A.F., Romanova N.D., Kopylov A.I., Zabotkina E.A.


We studied vertical distribution of bacteria and viruses in different layers of the Arctic sea ice drilled at the North Pole. The sampled multi-year ice was characterized by uneven vertical distribution of bacterial abundance. This characteristic varied within the range of 8±1.2×103 to 95±2.6×103 cells ml-1. The layers with the maximal bacterial abundance were located in the intermediate and lower layers of the ice cores. Bacterial biomass varied from 0.5 to 5 mg C m-3 with the mean value 1.57±0.2 mg C m-3. The ratio of viral to bacterial abundance varied from 0.6 to 28, with the mean value 12.5. The average total number of phages attached to bacteria was 6.2×103 viral particles ml-1. The number of viral particles located within bacterial cells varied from 2 to 21 particles per a bacterial cell. The frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells (FVIC) calculated for the upper, intermediate and lower layers of the ice was 0.92, 1.23 and 0.8% of the total bacterial abundance, respectively. The overall frequency of infected cells (FIC) calculated for the same layers was 6.3, 8.4 and 0.8% of bacteria numbers, respectively, while the viral-mediated mortality of bacteria (VMB) was 7.1, 9.8 and 6.1 %, respectively. Our data show that during the study period the rate of viral infection of bacterial cells and the viral-mediated mortality of bacterial cells in the multy-year ice of the North Pole were relatively low.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):373-382
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Structural-functional characteristics оf zooplankton in the ob estuary and adjacent Kara sea shelf in summer

Drits A.V., Arashkevich E.G., Nedospasov A.A., Amelina A.B., Flint M.V.


The study was carried out in the Ob estuary and the adjacent shelf of the Kara Sea in July 2016. For the first time data on the species composition, abundance and distribution as well as on feeding of zooplankton were obtained during the period of intensive river runoff. The biomass of zooplankton in terms of wet weight (without jelly animals and chaetognaths) varied over a wide range from 40 to 1880 mg/m3. The biomass was dominared by the Limnocalanus macrurus population, represented by all age stages, and Pseudocalanus spp. (an average of 60% and 17% of biomass, respectively. Maxima of zooplankton biomass were associated with the boundary of the distribution of river waters and with the southern periphery of the estuary frontal zone (EFZ). The short-term temporal variation of the abundance of zooplankton was observed when the transect was repeated after 2 days: the biomass at the southern periphery of the EFZ decreased from 1900 to 250 mg/m3). The observed changes is supposed to be caused by the shift of the southern boundary of the EFZ under the change in the wind regime. At high phytoplankton biomass in the estuary (>7 μg Chl-a/l), the daily ingestion of autotrophic phytoplankton of different copepodite stages of Limnocalanus macrurus was 5.77, 4.46, 2.59 and 1.4 μg C/ind/day in CVI, CV, CIV and CIII, respectively. Energy intake by younger copepodite stages not only covered the metabolic requirements, but also enabled the copepods to growth. At a relatively low Chl-a concentration (<2 μg/l) on the shelf, the mean values for older stages were lower (1.56 μg C/ind/day and 1.17 μg C/ind/day in CVI and CV, respectively) and hardly met the metabolic demands. The zooplankton grazing impact estimated with the gut fluorescence method varied from 0.2 to 7.3% of phytoplankton standing stock and from 2.2 to 30% of primary production. The results are discussed in relation to the specific hydrophysical conditions in the summer period and in comparison with the data obtained earlier for the autumn season.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):383-395
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Changes of salinity and species composition of ichthyofauna in the Azov Sea

Balykin P.A., Kutsyn L.N., Orlov A.M.


The impact of salinity changes on the composition of the Azov Sea ichthyofauna is considered. To date, not only the quantitative, but also the qualitative composition of ichthyofauna and commercial catches has changed, the base on which began to dominate by the Black and Caspian Sea sprat Clupeonella cultriventris, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, gobies Gobiidae, as well as the alien species so-iuy mullet Planiliza haematocheila and Prussian carp Carassius gibelio. In the eastern part of the Taganrog Bay, golden grey mullet Chelon aurata, flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus and Black Sea brill Scophthalmus maeoticus were registered for the first time. The number of aboriginal semi-anadromous species has decreased many times due to the deterioration of environmental and spawning conditions. The recommendations for the rationalization of fisheries under the conditions of salinization of the Azov Sea are presented.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):396-404
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Spatial structure of the macroand meiobenthic communities in homogenous conditions (on the example of the Pechora Sea)

Kozlovskiy V.V., Chikina M.V., Shabalin N.V., Basin A.B., Mokievskiy V.O., Kucheruk N.V.


Spatial structure of the macroand meiobenthic communities of the south-eastern Barents Sea (also known as Pechora Sea) was investigated in 2003 during the expedition of the RV «Professor Shtokman». One grid of the stations was used for both benthic size classes. Community dominated by Serripes groenlandicus occupied the most part of the investigated polygon, Astarte borealis dominated the easternmost station. Described communities are in correspondence with historic data. In the meiobenthic communities, nematodes played a leading role, accounting for 86–94% of the total number. Nematode Richtersia inaequalis was dominant on most stations, at the northernmost station the nematodes Cervonema papillatum and Microlaimus affinis dominated. The temperature and the salinity of the near-bottom water layer were homogenous, macroand meiobenthic communities were not influenced by grain size. In contrast to our expectations, communities of the macroand meiobenthos were distributed independently of each other on the mesoscale area (30×11 km).

Океанология. 2019;59(3):405-412
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Arctic and Antarctic scleractinian сorals. Comparisons, the similarities and differences

Keller N.B., Oskina N.S., Savilova T.А.


A comparison of the fauna of coldwater Scleractinia corals inhabiting the Polar regions of the Arctic and Antarctic revealed that in similar sub-zero temperatures of the surrounding waters, not only the character of the distribution of corals but also the number of species and their morphological characteristics in the Arctic and in the Antarctic radically different (in the sub-Antarctic region 17 coral species occure including 6 species endemic in the region, whereas the Arctic and high latitudes are inhabited by 2 species). We believe that the difference between these two faunas is due to the difference in geological history of these regions. In the southern hemisphere the formation of Circum-Antarctic currents ended the Neogene and in the sub-Antarctic region of stable conditions that existed millions of years that led to the formation of well-developed fauna scleractinia and the appearance of species endemic to this area. whereas in the Northern hemisphere hydrological stable conditions in high latitudes and the Arctic have existed since the beginning of the Holocene, approximately 11–12 thousand years, and when the colonization of corals by species of wide distribution.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):413-420
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Marine Geology

Geochemistry of suspended matter in the Volga river marginal filter

Lukashin V.N., Kravchishina M.D., Klyuvitkin A.A., Novigatsky A.N., Politova N.V.


The first data on the long-term study of marginal filter (MF) of the Volga River is presented. The concentrations of suspended particulate matter, suspendforming chemical elements and microelements are considered. Ratios of enrichment suspension by chemical elements relative to the upper lithosphere are calculated. as well as their interrelations at different stages of the MF. It is shown that the sedimentary substance supplied by the sea with river flow, changes radically, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):421-432
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Changes in the paleohydrological conditions in the Laptev Sea during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on a study of aquatic palynomorphs

Klyuvitkina T.S., Polyakova Y.I.


On the basis of aquatic palynomorph assemblages in sediment cores obtained from the eastern Laptev Sea shelf, major phases of environmental change associated with the last postglacial global sea-level rise can be recognized for the time since 17.5 calendar years BP (cal. ka). It is shown that in the time interval of 17.5–13.0 cal. ka in the western part of the sea there was a very cold-water sea basin with permanent sea-ice cover, 12.3–11.2 cal. ka the outer shelf were characterized by increased precipitation of river-loaded matter in a river-proximal environment of Anabara and Khatanga rivers, and the period of 11.2–7.0 cal ka was marked by enhanced influence of Atlantic water at the Laptev Sea continental margin. Modern-like environments were established in this part of the sea approximately 7.0 cal. ka.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):433-448
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Concentration, composition and fluxes of dispersed sedimentary matter in the snow-ice cover of the near-pole Arctic region

Novigatsky A.N., Lisitzin A.P.


Direct determinations of the dispersed sedimentary matter in the snow-ice cover near the North Pole are carried out. The composition of sedimentary material in the snow-ice cover was studied at the maximum for the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere distance from the continents, the vertical fluxes of matter from the under-ice layer were determined. These data were obtained using sediment traps. For snow and ice investigations melt waters of large volume were studied. It was found that dispersed sedimentary matter of aeolian genesis is of primary importance in snow and sea ice.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):449-453
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Studies of particle fluxes of sedimentary matter along multiyear transoceanic section in northern Atlantic and Arctic interaction area

Klyuvitkin A.А., Novigatsky A.N., Politova N.V., Koltovskaya E.V.


New data on the particle fluxes of sedimentary matter and its main components at the meridional section along 59°30' N in the North Atlantic under the influence of multidirectional transfer of water masses are given. The material for the study was collected for two years from July 2015 to July 2017 using sediment traps installed as part of four automatic deep-water sedimentary observatories. In the subsurface layer, the annual variation of the fluxes and the change in the composition of the sinking matter are determined by the primary production. Near-bottom fluxes of sedimentary matter on the slopes of the Reykjanes ridge are formed under conditions of water masses and, respectively, suspended particulate matter transfer in a south-westerly direction along the ridge from the Iceland-Faeroe and Greenland-Iceland rises. There is a reverse directional transfer of matter at the foot of the European continental slope. The composition of the sinking matter is dominated by the biogenic component, the proportion of which decreases with depth due to dissolution, and in winter due to the weakening of the biological activity of the upper active layer. The role of lithogenic matter is maximal in the bottom layer, including due to the supply of material from the bottom.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):454-465
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Ice gouging on the arctic shelf of Russia

Nikiforov S.L., Ananiev R.A., Libina N.V., Dmitrevskiy N.N., Lobkovskii L.I.


The results of recent geological and geophysical expeditions indicate the activation of hazardous natural phenomena associated with ice gouging and represent geohazard for almost all activities, including operation of the Northern Sea Route. Within the Barents Sea and the western part of the Kara Sea, the modern ice gouging is mainly associated with icebergs which are formed as a result of the destruction of the glaciers of Novaya Zemlya, the Spitsbergen archipelago and Franz Josef Land, while on the eastern shelf it is caused by the destruction of seasonal or perennial ice fields. Fixed furrows can be divided into modern coastal gouges or deep water ploughmarks. All deep water gouges within the periglacial and glacial shelf are of paleogeographical origin, but with different mechanisms of action on the seabed. These furrows were formed by floating ice on the periglacial shelf. On the glacial shelf deep water ploughmarks were formed by large icebergs, which could carry out the gouging even on the continental slope and deep-sea ridges of the Arctic Ocean.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):466-468
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Chemostratigraphy of the Snorry drift in the Northern Atlantic

Demina L.L., Novichkova Y.A., Kozina N.V.


On the basis of multi-element chemical analysis and oxygen isotopic data, for the first time the distribution of some geochemical indicators was investigated in the sediment core taken at the Western slope of the Snorry contourite drift (St. AI-3378, North Atlantic) in the 49th cruise of RV "Akademik Ioffe" in 2015. Down the core an asynchronous change in the terrigenous (IRD, Al, Si, Ti, Zr, Cr) and biogenic indicators (CaCO3, Corg) was recorded. Based on multi-element geochemical data, the rhythmic distribution along the core of terrigenous and biogenic sedimentary material has been revealed. Sedimentary matter entered the study area as a result of ice and iceberg unloading, as well as brought by near-bottom currents. The intensity and direction of the near-bottom contour currents seemed to change dramatically with the change of warming and cooling periods during the six marine isotope stages MIS 1–6 (the last 190 ka).

Океанология. 2019;59(3):469-475
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Index transformation of the sediment

Zdobin D.Y.


Discusses the results of long term monitoring studies of physics-chemical properties of Holocene silts of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea. On the basis of comprehensive analysis of a ratio of values natural moisture content (We), humidity upper limit of plasticity (WL) and percentage of organic matter (Corg) at the depth of a continuous sequence of marine organo-mineral soils, the conclusion about the possibility of separation of sediment on physics-chemical parameters by introducing the index transformation of sediment — To. Analysis of the distribution of sediment properties with depth, carried out in other waters (the Laptev sea, South China sea) suggests the universality of this indicator. Necessity of the division of a single natural system "sediment–silt–clay fluid" boundary "sedimentation–digenesis" ("silt clay–clay fluid") WeWL and the Corg≥3%.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):476-484
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The warm water planktonic foraminifera in the sediments of Kara Sea

Oskina N.S., Khusid T.A., Libina N.V., Domanov M.M., Matul A.G.


Article is devoted to a research of warm-loving species of planktonic foraminifera in the Arctic. Fauna of the planktonic and the benthic foraminifera in the surface and subsurface layer of the Kara Sea sediments was studied. It is found that complexes of the benthic foraminifera are characteristic for this region. It is shown also what at complexes of planktonic foraminifera the significant amount of kinds of warm-loving species from equatorial, tropical and subtropical regions are presented. It is supposed that they are brought to the Arctic by a current from low latitudes. The received results are compared with the published data. Earlier it was shown that alive warm-loving species meet in waters of the Laptev Sea and their shells were observed in the present sediments of the marginal part of the Laptev Sea.


Океанология. 2019;59(3):485-496
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Rhythmic patterns of shoreline contour in the gulf of Terpenya of Sakhalin Island

Leont’yev I.O., Afanas'yev V.V., Uba A.V.


The results are discussed of the long-term observations of the system of mega-cusps (large-scale shoreline cusps) revealed on the coast of the Gulf of Terpenya of Sakhalin Island. Typical spatial step of the rhythmic forms is about 800 m and the amplitude of shoreline undulations is of tens of meters. Despite of significant changes in temporal scales of the seasons, years and decades the main morphological features of mega-cusps are kept over the period of more than 60 years. The model is suggested explaining creation of rhythmic shoreline patterns by self-organization of bottom relief under the wave impact. Development of mega-cusps is shown to be connected with generation of nearshore circulation cells. Due to flows within the cells a small initial perturbation of shoreline contour can increase in time. A positive feedback between the coastal morphology and the hydrodynamics arises when a certain relation is established between the length of perturbation, the width of surf zone and the velocities of nearshore currents. It is concluded that the system of mega-cusps in the Gulf of Terpenya is mainly supported by the moderate waves of significant wave height about 1.6 m.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):497-505
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Marine ecosystems of Siberian Arctic — 2018 (72th cruise of R/V “Akademik Mstislav Keldish”)

Flint M.V., Poyarkov S.G., Rimsky-Korsakov N.A., Miroshnikov A.Y.


Large-scale expedition 72th cruise of R/V “Akademik Mstislav Keldish” was performed form 16 August to 20 September 2018 in a frame of the Program “Marine Ecosystems of Siberian Arctic”. Multidisciplinary ecosystem research was carried out over the shelf and continental slope in the Kara and Laptev seas and Vilkitski Pass. The expedition was organized by Shirshov Institute of Oceanology.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):506-509
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Multidisciplinary investigations of the Northern Atlantic and Arctic in 71th cruise of R/V «Akademik Mstislav Keldysh»

Novigatsky A.N., Gladyshev S.V., Klyuvitkin A.A., Kozina N.V., Artemyev V.A., Kochenkova A.I.


The article briefly shows the results of the expedition, expanding Russia’s contribution to the international program CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability), aimed at studying and predicting climate change. The geological part of the expedition is aimed at studying the sedimentary system of the North Atlantic and the Arctic. During the voyage, a unique material was received, requiring additional analysis and further publication.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):510-512
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Geophysical investigations in the Eastern Indian Ocean in cruise SO258/2 of RV Sonne (Germany)

Levchenko O.V., Geissler W.


New geophysical data were obtained in 2017 in cruise #SO258/2 of RV Sonne in the Central Indian Basin between 81° and 84°E. Total length of collected geophysical profiles (bathymetry, seismoacoustic profiling, magnetometry, gravimetry) is about 6,500 miles. Deep seismic sounding was carried out along N-S profile by 375 m long, which extends on the land, and SW-NE profile by 340 m long. The main objectives of the research were to verify the existing kinematic/geodynamic models of separation of India from Antarctica, to determine drift rate of the Indian Plate, location of the continent-ocean transition zone south of Sri Lanka and structure of 85°E Ridge. The cruise was part of a project INGON performed by the Center for marine research, GEOMAR and the Institute for polar and marine research Alfred Wegener.

Океанология. 2019;59(3):513-516
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