Vol 489, No 5 (2019)

Mathematics
Discrete bilinear Hardy inequalities
Jane P., Stepanov V.D., Shambilova G.E.
Abstract

The problem of characterization of bilinear inequality in discrete form is solved.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):445-448
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Identities on algebras and combinatorial properties of binary words
Zacicev M.V., Repovs D.D.
Abstract

We consider polynomial identities and codimension growth of nonassociative algebras over a field of characte-ristics zero. We offer new approach which allows to construct nonassociative algebras starting from a given infinite binary word. The sequence of codimensions of such an algebra is closeely connected with combinatorial complexity of the defining word. These constructions give new examples of algebras with abnormal codimension growth. The first important achievement is that our algebras are finitely generated. The second one is that asymptotic behavior of codimension sequences is quite different unlike all previous examples.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):449-451
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On mutually inverse transforms of functions on a half-line
Protasov V.Y., Shirokov M.E.
Abstract

Two transforms of functions on a half-line are considered. It is proved that their composition gives a concave majorant for every non-negative function. In particular, this composition is an identical transform on the class of non-negative concave functions. Applications of this result in the operator theory of Hilbert space and in the theory of quantum systems are mentioned. Several open problems are formulated.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):452-455
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Estimation method of Hurst exponent of fractional Brownian motion
Savitskii A.V.
Abstract

The article contains fractional Brownian motion research, statistical estimations of Hurst exponent and their properties. This random process is used in model development, trend forecasting, in particular as special case of long-memory processes. The first recorded model with Hurst Exponent appeared in Harold Hurst’s research, published in 1951, that was dedicated to the analysis of the flow of Nil river. After that improved model of fractional Brownian motion was widely used in different financial market researches. Due to high relevance of such random processes, the problems of extrapolation of fractional Brownian motion and point estimation have become very important. This article is dedicated to the new approach of point estimation of Hurst Exponent.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):456-460
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Physics
Mechanism of detonation formation as a result of free flame propagation in unconfined space
Kiverin A.D., Yakovenko I.S., Fortov V.E.
Abstract

The problem of the detonation formation as a result of unconfined flame propagation is solved numerically. The mechanism of detonation formation is distinguished. It is related to the local formation of shock waves du- ring the linear stage of development of flame front perturbations formed on the surface of the expanding flame front. General criteria of the establishment of the conditions for the detonation transition via the proposed mechanism are formulated.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):461-464
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Technical Physics
Effects of crystallinity on sintering of metal nanoparticles
Samsonov V.M., Talyzin I.V., Vasilyev S.A., Alymov M.I.
Abstract

Regularities and mechanisms of coalescence of Au nanodroplets and sintering of solid Au nanoparticles have been investigated by using molecular dynamics and some theoretical models. It has been established that the characteristic time of coalescence t is proportional to radius r0 of initial nanodroplets. Both the above conclusion and some quantitative estimations of the proportionality coefficient between t and r0 agree with Frenkel’s theory (1946) though this theory was rut forward to describe coalescence of macroscopic droplets.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):465-468
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Mechanics
Theoretical and experimental method for determining elastic characteristics of nanomaterials
Fomin V.M., Filippov A.A.
Abstract

The method allows determining the mechanical characteristic of nanoobjects was presented. A heterogeneous material consisting of a nanophase and a binder phase was considered, the mass and volume concentrations of components were given. Heterogeneous material is reduced to homogeneous by averaging methods while the mechanical characteristics will be associated with averaged ones. Assuming that the mechanical characteristics of the binder and averaged homogeneous materials are known from mechanical tests, the system of equations allow us to determine the mechanical characteristics of nanoobjects included in this heterogeneous material. It is believed that the mechanical characteristics of bonding and averaged homogeneous materials make it possible to obtain equations of equations that allow one to determine the mechanical characteristics of nano-objects present in this heterogeneous material. Classical mechanical tests were carried out, describing the uniaxial stress and strain states of materials, which made it possible to obtain an analytical form the dependences of the mechanical characteristics of nanophases depending on their size. Specific examples are given for silica dioxide nanoparticles (Aerosil and Tarkosil powders).

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):469-472
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Chemistry
Cationic copolymerization of cholesterol vinyl ether with methylvinylsulfide: toward medicinal polymers
Markova M.V., Tatarinova I.V., Apartsin K.А., Kireeva V.V., Trofimov B.A.
Abstract

Oligomers of cholesterol vinyl ether (CVE) with methyl vinyl sulfide synthesized in the presence of cationic catalyst ВF3 · OEt2 in up to 81% yield (Mn up to 5700) demonstrate optical activity exceeding that of CVE homopolymer, which is probably due to both conformational effects of the oligomer chain and chirality induction during the polymerization.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):473-477
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Physical chemistry
Textured materials with extreme wettability for water harvesting from aerosols
Emelyanenko K.A., Melnikov S.N., Proshin P.I., Domantovsky A.G., Emelyanenko A.M., Boinovich L.B.
Abstract

The creation of methods for complete and cost-effective collection of water droplets from an aerosol which arises as a by-product of the low-potential heat uptake from industrial devices, is one of the key tasks of rational use of water resources contributing to the improvement of the environment near large industrial enterprises. This paper shows how the application of materials with extreme wettability and a specific surface topography in spray separators can significantly increase the efficiency of water collection.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):478-482
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Geology
U-Pb dating, oxygen and hafnium isotopic ratios of zircon from rocks of oceanic core complexes at Mid-Atlantic Ridge: evidence for an interaction of young and ancient crusts at spreading of the ocean floor
Bortnikov N.S., Silantiev S.А., Bea F., Montero P., Zinger T.F., Skolotnev S.G., Sharkov E.V.
Abstract

U-Pb age, oxygen and hafnium isotopic ratios in zircon from rocks of ocean core complexes at Mid-Atlantic Ridge have been studied using SHRIMP and MC-LA-ICP-MS techniques. U-Pb dating revealed four group of zircons: 1) 0,6-1,7 Ma, 2) 6,7-11,2 Ma, 3) 12,9-17,6 Ma, 4) ≥200 to 2044 Ma. The δ18O values range from 4,74 to 7,2‰ and are distinct for zircon grains of different ages. Hafnium isotopic ratio for zircon aged from 0,6 to 17,6 Ma corresponds or is close to that of MORB from Central Atlantic. The oxygen and hafnium isotopic compositions of zircon elder than 280 Ma correspond to those of the sialic continental crust. A hypothesis of involvement of the ancient “pre-Atlantic” sialic (≥280 млн лет) and “old Atlantic” (7-17 Ma) crusts in a generation of the contemporary (“young”) oceanic crust during formation of the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge has been proposed.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):483-489
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Selective contamination of basaltic magmas and buchite genesis (on the example of Shufan plateau, Primorye)
Maksimov S.O., Sakhno V.G., Ekimova N.A., Chubarov V.M.
Abstract

The article discusses the problem of large-scale contamination of the Shufan volcanic plateau’s basalts (Primorye) by selective melts from xenoliths. Silicic and alkaline liquids, selectively extracted from xenoliths, mix in a limited way with basaltic melts forming bands of granophyre that give lavas a taxitic structure. The article describes the unique compositions of buchites that were chemically modified by the diffusion interaction with basaltic magma and selectively molten politic xenoliths. Their mineral associations are represented by a high ferriferous cordierite (sekaninaite), ultra-ferriferous hercynite, (Al, Zr) Fe-armalcolite, Zr-ilmenite, mullite, sillimanite, high-lanthanum monazite, and barium-phosphate-aluminosilicate phase. The chemical and mineral compositions of buchites reflect the accumulation of refractory elements (Al, Fe, Ti, Zr, Ni, Cr) in the restite material of xenoliths. It is followed by the formation of ultra-alumina, ultra-ferruginous, initially immiscible metal-silicate composition. Low Pb isotopic ratios in Shufan basalts suggest a selective contamination by an ancient cratonic basement’s material. A consecutive increase of the isotopic ratios is observed the basalts contaminated by the upper crustal material, which is also shown by buchites’ isotopic composition.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):490-496
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Geochemistry
Morphological characteristics of diamond crystals arising as the result of dissolution in Fe-Ni-S MELT at high pressure
Gryaznov I.A., Zhimulev E.I., Sonin V.M., Lindenblot E.S., Chepurov A.A., Sobolev N.V.
Abstract

The first results on the dissolution of flat-faced diamond crystals of octahedral habit in Fe-Ni-S melt at 3,5 GPa and 1400 °С are presented. It has been established that as a result of dissolution, flat-faceted diamond crystals are transformed into curve-faced individuals with morphological features similar to kimberlite diamonds. It is concluded that similar forms of natural diamonds could have been formed in reducing domains of the Earth’s mantle before entering the kimberlite magma.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):497-501
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Geophysics
Protons of radiation belts as a source of hydrogen in the Earth’s atmosphere
Lapshin V.B., Ivanov M.S., Kotonaeva N.G., Burov V.A., Repin A.Y.
Abstract

A scenario is proposed for replenishing the Earth’s exosphere with atomic hydrogen of cosmic origin. An assessment was made and the coincidence of the total atomic hydrogen content in the exosphere with the number of protons (after thermolization converted into hydrogen ions) precipitated in the SAA zone during the year according to the data of the Meteor M and NOAA‑19 satellites was confirmed. The observed coincidence indicates that the rates of replenishment of hydrogen due to precipitation from radiation belts and dissipation into outer space coincide in order of magnitude. It is concluded that the exosphere hydrogen is mainly of cosmic origin and its main source is the thermalized protons of galactic cosmic rays, solar cosmic rays and partially solar wind.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):502-505
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Geography
Cyclic structure of the isotopic diagram of the lithalsa and its radiocarbon age, Sentsa River valley, Eastern Sayan
Vasil’chuk Y.K., Vasil’chuk J.Y., Alexeyev S.V., Budantseva N.A., Alexeyeva L.P., Vasil’chuk A.C., Kozyreva Y.A., Svetlakov A.A.
Abstract

The lithalsa, located on the first terrace of the Sentsa River in Okinsky district of the Republic of Buryatia, were studied. The most typical features of isotopic diagrams, obtained from the ice core from the 20-meter borehole, is their stage structure: three isotope minima at depths of approximately: 3-5, 9-12, and 18-21 m are separated by two distinct isotope maxima. Most likely, this is due to the cycle of the triple flooding of the growing permafrost mound and the subsequent active evaporation of the lake water - ​the main source of water in the ice core of lithalsa. Based on the detailed radiocarbon dating of organic material from the upper layers of the highest and surrounding lithalsas, the time of their formation was established. The active accumulation of organic material in dried heaving soils occurred from 0,5 to 0,2 ka BP. This is the time of the beginning of the formation of permafrost, active ice formation and the associated heaving process and lithalsa growth. The age of at least 3 of 4 studied mounds is not older than 200 years, it coincides with the cooling in the early 19th century.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):506-511
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Oceanology
Numerical study of isotropic ocean swell
Geogjaev V.V., Zakharov V.E., Badulin S.I.
Abstract

A new algorithm is used for detailed numerical study of the evolution of isotropic swell in a homogeneous ocean. It is shown that the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum occurs in an explosive manner in a short time. The Kolmogorov constant of the solution is estimated numerically.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):512-516
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Biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology
Recombinant analogue of the human protein SLURP-1 inhibits the growth of multicellular carcinoma cell spheroids
Bychkov M.L., Shulepko M.A., Shlepova O.V., Lyukmanova E.N., Kirpichnikov M.P.
Abstract

The present study showed that the recombinant analogue of SLURP‑1 effectively inhibits the growth of a 3D model of tumors - multicellular spheroids from human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The combined application of SLURP‑1 with gefitinib (inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) leads to the synergistic antiproliferative effect on spheroids from A431 cells. The results obtained suggest the possibility for design of first-in-class anticancer drugs based on recombinant SLURP‑1.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):517-520
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Low molecular weight compound GSB-106 mimics the cellular effects of BDNF after serum deprivation
Zainullina L.F., Gudasheva T.A., Vakhitova Y.V., Seredenin S.B.
Abstract

The in vitro model of serum deprivation shows that the survival of SH-SY5Y neuronal cells is ensured by the intrinsic trophic activity of BDNF loop 4-th mimetic GSB‑106 (10-7 М), which is comparable to that of endogenous neurotrophin (10-9 М). The analysis of the cell cycle and S‑phase showed that GSB‑106, like BDNF, induces cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, diminishes the number of cells in the S‑phase, reduces the number of apoptotic cells and does not stimulate proliferation.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):521-524
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Proteins of the vesicular cycle as a marker of neuroplasticity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain
Mingazov E.R., Pavlova E.N., Surkov S.A., Ugrumov M.V.
Abstract

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons (DNs) involved in the regulation of motor function, are characterized by high plasticity. Indeed, at the death of up to 50% of DNs in Parkinson’s disease, the survived neurons provide normal regulation. This study was aimed to determine whether proteins of the vesicular cycle, syntaxin Ia (Syn Ia), synaptotagmin I (Syt I), Rab5a and complexins I and II (Cmpx I and II), are involved in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity in the substantia nigra, which mainly contains cell bodies and processes of the DNs. In neurotoxic models of Parkinson’s disease in mice, it was shown that at the degeneration of up to 50% of DNs, the content of Syt I, Syn Ia, Cmpх I and II involved in vesicle exocytosis does not change in the substantia nigra as whole, while this is compensatory increased in individual survived DNs. Thus, the data obtained in this study suggest that the impairment of motor behavior that occurs at the death of half of nigrostriatal DNs is not caused by the impairment of the production of vesicular cycle proteins in surviving DNs.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):525-529
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Fluorescent DNA probes: properties study and methods of application
Sibirtsev V.S., Garabadgiu A.V., Shvets V.I.
Abstract

The results of long-term author’s studies of the optical and complex-forming properties of more than 30 synthetic low-molecular-weight fluorophores specific for DNA are described. These studies have significantly expand the already existing database of properties of such compounds and clarify ideas about the patterns linking the mentioned properties of fluorophores with their structure, and formulate recommendations on the design of new, effective, DNA‑specific fluorophores. The results of these studies can be used, in particular, in the development of new express methods for diagnosing various diseases biotesting of pro- and antibiotic properties of various products and wastes, etc.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;489(5):530-534
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