No 1 (2019)

Plant growing

The selective-genetic value of chosen from the collection varieties of winter tritikale in connection with the selection of culture for the central non-black soil region

Voronov S.I., Medvedev А.M., Osipov V.V., Osipova A.V., Zhikharev S.D., Liseenko E.N., Poma N.G.


Under the conditions of Moscow region were investigated 1.5 thousand of models X.Triticosecale Wittmack of different ecological- geographical origin, concentrated in the world gene pool and also new types and the line of Federal Research Center, obtained with the use of those isolated in Dias (5x5) and other field experiments of the genetic sources and donors of valuable signs. The results of the analysis of diallel crossings according to the method of B.J.Hayman (1954) attest to the fact that for all studied signs of tritikale is characteristic the additive- dominant diagram of inheritance. According to the signs the mass 1000 of grains, the content of protein in the grain, the content of starch in the grain in F1 hybrids is revealed the super-domination. According to the sign the mass of grain from the ear the nature of inheritance changed from the complete domination to the super-domination. The basic contribution to the increase of the signs of productivity introduced dominant genes, by their concentration the prospect of the separate combinations of crossing is determined. According to the sign the mass 1000 of grains is promising the line Of Prag 468, throughout the mass of grain from the ear – line ADK 1369t. The high content of starch in the grain is caused by dominant alleles, they were separately allotted to the line Prag 468 and 6418-145. It is shown that by the authors obtained the fundamentally new types and lines with the high indices of productivity and quality of grain, which considerably exceed standard Victor. The collection of grain in the control nursery of new lines (5802-10-5-6 5802-10-5-59, 154-11-55) even under the extremely unfavorable weather conditions of 2017 year varied from 8,34 to 9,91 t/ha. The harvest of standard type Victor proved to be equal 5,04 t/ha, i.e., almost in 2 time it is lower than in the line 154-11-5-5. In the competitive strain testing (2014-2017) superiority showed the type Gera. The advantage of the noted new genotype over standards lies in the fact that they form the excellently ear with the coarse full-weight grain ear (to 80 the grains), have the increased productivity, a good safety of plants to the harvesting, high stability to the limiting factors of medium.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):3-8
pages 3-8 views

Adaptivity of spring triticale sorts in agroecological conditions of the middle priamurye

Aseeva T.T., Zenkina K.V.


The aim of this work is to fix the price of the adaptive properties of spring triticale, created in different ecology-geographical zones, in agroecological conditions of the Middle Priamurye concerning the productivity. The researches have been done in 2015-2017 years on the selection crop rotation of the Far-Eastern NIISH. The eight sort samples of spring triticale from VIR world collection, created in different ecology-geographical zones, were picked out and analyzed. The hydrothermic conditions during the researching years were of various character: index of surroundings conditions changed from -5,05 to 4,95. The best conditions for the sorts were in 2017 year, when the index of surroundings had the greatest importance. The negative index of surroundings was typical for 2016 year, when the soil remoistening during the whole vegetation period became the factor affecting on the spring triticale productivity. The genotypes of spring triticale showed the different adaptive properties in hydrothermic conditions of the Middle Priamurye. The sorts of spring triticale Skory, Ulyana, Victoria showed the high stability to stress factors of growing. The maximum correspondence with the factors of the Middle Priamurye surroundings is with the genotype of sort Rovnya. The sorts of high intensive type – Skory and Ulyana – are responsive to conditions improvement. That is why they are characterized by stable productivity. Sort Victoria is concerned to ecologically plastic in the soil-climatic conditions of the Middle Priamurye. The sorts: Ukro, Rovnya, Lana, Oberig kharkovskiy and AC Certa are concerned to neutral type; according to the ecological plasticity of they have no stability in productivity forming.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):9-11
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Biological substantiation of applications microfertilizers and organo-mineral preparations for out-root treatment wheat

Kolesnikov L.E., Melnikov S.P., Kiselev M.V., Zuev E.V., Vasileva T.A.


The paper presents data on the evaluation of the effect of ten preparations based on humic substances and silver (FlorhGumat, FloraS, Edagum, Fitop Flora-S, Zerebra agro, BatyrMax, Batyr 40N, Batyr 40N + MAX, Azofoska) on the productivity of spring soft wheat. The productivity of wheat was studied in indicators of: the phase of the plant (according to the scale of Eucarpia) the number of germinal, coleoptile roots, the length of the germinal, coleoptile roots, the number of nodal roots, the length of nodal roots, the summary mass of the roots, the mass of the vegetative part of the plants, the length of the wheat spike, the number of spikelets in the wheat spike, the number of grains in the wheat spike, the mass of the spike, the height of the plants, the area of the flag leaf, the area of the pre-flags leaf, productive tilling capacity, general tilling capacity. Out-root treatment of plants with preparations in appropriate concentrations was carried out in the evening hours during the phases of wheat tillering and the formation of a flags leaf. The greatest influence on the productivity of wheat was provided by the preparation BatyrMax. The preparation Edagum showed maximum effectiveness in the number of reliable positive changes in the productivity of wheat compared to the control (untreated plants) and background (the plants were treated with the preparation Azofoska). Similarities in the action of Edagum, Phytop Flora-S and Zerebra Agro, Batyr 40N + Max on the changes in the most of the wheat productivity indicators were revealed. There was no statistically significant effect on the yield of Flora-S, FlorHumat, Azofoska.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):12-15
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Molecular selection of Beta vulgaris L. breeding materials with genes of resistance to abiotic stresses

Nalbandyan A.A., Fedulova T.P., Hussein A.S.


In the work, the results of sugar beet breeding materials' molecular-genetic studying for presence of genes of resistance to root-knot nematode, rhizomania and powdery mildew are presented. Testing of plants was conducted using polymerase chain reaction method. The genes R6m-1, Rz1 and Rz2, Pm were identified with the help of 5 one-chain RAPD and 4 allele-specific primers. Aim of the studies is to screen sugar beet varieties for presence of the abovementioned genes of resistance. Domestic and foreign sugar beet hybrids were an object of the studies.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):16-20
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New varieties and hybrids of potato recommended for cultivation in the middle taiga zone of european north-east*

Chebotarev N.T., Yudin A.A., Konkin P.I., Oblizov A.V.


In 2014-2017 in terms of the Republic of Komi conducted a comparative test of two varieties (Saranac and Memory Field) and hybrids (1603-7 and 1657-7) potatoes. The soil of experimental plot is sod-podzolic, light loam, highly cultivated. Agrochemical soil parameters: humus-3,0-4,1%; pH -5,7 – 6,6; P2O5 – 500-595 mg/kg of soil, K2O-130-170 mg/kg of soil. On the sod-podzolic wellcultivated soil, the yield of potato tubers on the 60-65 day from the planting period, on average for 4 years, amounted to 5.1-11.4 t/ha, while the yield of control potato varieties (Luck and Nevsky) was 7.6–9.9 t/ha.The highest yield on the 60-65 day was obtained from hybrid 1657-7 – 11.4 t / ha and exceeded the control varieties by 50.0% and 15.1%, respectively. Varieties of Saranac and Memory Field it was 10.2–8.9 t/ha. 90-95 day, from the date of planting, the average yield of varieties and hybrids of potatoes amounted to 26.2–38,0 t/ha. The highest yields of potato tubers obtained from the hybrid 1657-7 – 38,0 t/ha, a fairly high yield of potatoes was the varieties Saranac – at 33.9 MT/ha and Memory Field – 32.0 t/ha. dry matter content in tubers of potato varieties: Saranac – 21,7 %, P Field 23,4%, in the control potato varieties it was 20.8 and 21.3%. The amount of starch in tubers of potato varieties: Saranac -15,5%, P Field – of 15.6%, control varieties: the Luck of 14.5%, and a budget of 14.5%. According to the content of vitamin C, the best was a hybrid of 1657-12, 5%, in varieties: Zyryanets and P. Polevoy amount of vitamin C was 10.0 and 10.8%, in control varieties: Luck – 9.5%, Nevsky – 14.0%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):21-24
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Influence of climate change on the manifestation of winter-spring stress factors for apricot in the prikubansky zone of the krasnodar region

Dragavtseva I.A., Morents A.S., Savin I.Y., Kuznetsova A.P.


The results of analysis of long-term changes in the risk of apricot damage in spring frosts in the Krasnodar region are presented. The phenomenon of changing the ranks of the probability of the manifestation of low-temperature minima in two long-term periods (19852000 and 2001-2017) is revealed. It is shown that the change of ranks from the first to the second period occurs for varieties Krasnoshcheky and Gerdel 1-22 practically the same throughout the research area, which indicates a very weak contribution of ecological differences between geographic points in the phenomenon of genotype-environment interaction. The variety of New Jersey is almost consistently ranked third (the most unstable) in all regions except for Ust-Labinsk in the period 1985-2000. It is shown that apricot varieties differ in frost-resistance homeostasis. Variety Krasnoshcheky in period 1 and period 2 has differences in the probability of manifestation of low-temperature minima 29.7 and 35.3; variety Zherdel 1-22 25.2 and 29.5; and the grade of New Jersey is 25.0 and 41.1. The most homeostatic frost resistance in the Gerdel variety is 1-22.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):25-28
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The strategy of creating highly productive forms of radish, adapted for cultivation under artificial light conditions

Kochetov A.A., Sinyavina N.G.


The strategy of creating new radish forms adapted for cultivation under artificial lighting was developed and implemented. It was based on the original methodology of obtaining transgressive forms of various cultures with a predictable complex of economically valuable properties. Plants were grown in controlled conditions, under incandescent lamps DNAZ-400 (12 hours photoperiod, irradiation of 40-60 W/m2 PAR), in a small volume of the root medium. At the first stage, the intraspecific diversity of radish (26 varieties of different origin) under artificial lighting has been studied. Differences between varieties were determined for the complex of selective-valuable characteristics (early maturity, productivity, morphological characteristics). The most productive varieties are revealed, as well as varieties donors of economically valuable properties that are realized under artificial lighting at a short day and high temperature. Parent pairs have been selected for the subsequent receipt of highly productive transgressive forms using the original breeding methodology. The evaluation of hybrids of the first and second generation showed the presence of heterosis on the mass of the root up to 230% in various combinations of hybridization and revealed promising transgressive forms.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):29-33
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Agroecological estimation of soilsdraft soviets of Sarpin lower

Dedova E.B., Konieva G.N.


The purpose of the research is to study the phytomeliorative properties of the accompanying crops of rice crop rotations and the degree of their influence on the soil fertility indicators of rice fields. Experimental studies are conducted on rice pouches located in the zone of activity of the Sarpinskaya irrigation and irrigation system of the Republic of Kalmykia, the source of which is the river Volga. The soil cover of rice fields is represented by solonetzic light chestnut and brown semi-desert soils in combination with solonetzes. To diversify into rice degraded agro landscapes, the effect of phyto-meliorants on soil fertility of rice fields was studied. It has been revealed that in order to improve the meliorative state and increase the soil fertility of rice fields, it is necessary to provide for the cultivation of accompanying crops of rice cropland (spring rape, mustard, sunflower, lucerne sowing) with the use of residual moisture reserves after rice. Agroecological assessment of soils of rice crop rotations has been carried out, which has shown the effectiveness of meliorating influence of ameliorant crops, which consists in enriching the soil with organic matter due to additional plant residues entering the soil, increasing its biological activity, improving agrophysical and agrohydrological properties.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):34-39
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Microbial succession in the typical chernozems of "Streletskaya steppe" reserve under the influence of long agrogenic impact

Svistova I.D., Stakhurlova L.D.


For assession the ecological status of chernozems in agrocenoces the indicators of biological activity are most informative. It was revealed that the direction of microbial succession at plowing of virgin chernozems depend on the method of its use. In crop rotation, the microbial community moves into adaptive stress zone, such changes can be regulated by agricultural techniques. In a long fallow to zone of resistance. In the arable soil species structure of micromycetes are changing. In the absence of plants the rank of fungihydrolitics are declining. Indicator fungies species for different biocenoces were revealed.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):40-42
pages 40-42 views

Animal husbandry

The effect of adsorbent and phytobiotic the density of diatomaceous fauna of the rumen and milk productivity of cows

Kulakova T.S., Tretyakov E.A., Fomina L.L., Zakrepina E.N., Zhuravlyova S.G.


The aim of the work is to study the effect of adsorbent "Vermiculite" and phytobiotic "Extract Ruminant " on the density of infusoria fauna of the rumen and on the milk productivity of cows. The object of the research is lactating cows. As a result of the research it has been revealed that inclusion of adsorbent "Vermiculite" and phytobiotic "Extract Ruminant" in the diets of dairy animals had a positive effect on the density of infusoria in the rumen, having increased their number by 52.3 15.4% compared to the animals of the same age in the control group. The use of feed additives contributed to the increase in milk productivity of cows by 4.1 – 3.8% in the 1st and 2nd experimental groups, respectively.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):43-45
pages 43-45 views

Effects of age and liveweight of heifers at puberty and first conception on cow productivity and safety

Levina G.N., Zelepukina M.V., Maksimchuk M.G.


The effects of the optimal liveweight of heifers, reaching the age of completed puberty and first conception, on the lifespan, the milk yield, and the welfare status of cows after three lactations have been studied. The survey was performed with the mature domestic Black-and-White cows (п=7171) born in the farm enterprises, Belgorod Region in 2010 to 2014. The milk yield 7746-8570 kg per cow per indicated period was recorded; the milk fat and protein contents comprised 3.82-3.81% and 3.37-3.30%, respectively. Isemination of 15-16-month-old heifers of no less than 412 kg liveweight and 17-18-month-old heifers of 426 kg liveweight, taking into account their 12-month weights of 327-347 kg and 316-344 kg, rspectively, has been proved reasonable in order to improve the Black-andWhite cows' welfare, lifespan, and milk production as 20.4-31.8 thousand kg over three entire lactations

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):46-49
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Analysis of breed and class composition cattle of the ural region

Gridin V.F., Gridina S.L.


The use of the genetic potential of the Holstein breed to improve local breeds made it possible to create a new Ural type of black-andwhite breed. Cattle in the Ural region are represented by 8 breeds of animals, and the number of black-and-white cows is 81.9%. The productivity of black-motley cows is 6237 kg of milk with a fat content of 3.88% and protein weight ratio of 3.13%. The highest productivity was observed in Holstein cows 7352 kg of milk. In the regions and republics of the region, the number of purebred and 4th generation animals is at the level of 92-100%. At the same time, in the farms of the Tyumen, Kurgan, Chelyabinsk regions and the Perm Territory, all animals are purebred, 84.7% of animals belong to the elite-record and elite class. Thus, high-quality herds of cattle of black and motley breed numbering 485.9 thousand are created in the Ural region.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):50-51
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Biological evaluation of the influence of protein hydrolysate on the organism of the monks

Slesarenko N.A., Abramov P.N.


In this study, performed on the basis of JSC "Plemzverosovkhoz Saltykovsky" on 150 standard minks which were selected according to the principle of analogs, the systemic and local effects of protein hydrolyzate in the composition of the basic diet were evaluated. A complex methodical approach was used, including clinical, hematological, morphological and zootechnical research methods. The digital material was subject o statistical processing. When analyzing the basic diet of minks, it was established that it is balanced in almost all nutritional substances. Nevertheless, based on a comparative study of the amino acid composition of the feed, a deficiency of the essential amino acid of threonine was detected. An evaluation of the dynamics of body weight in experimental animals showed an advantage in the growth of animals receiving hydrolyzate. By the end of the experiment, the animals of the experimental groups outstripped (by 10.1%) the control analogues for weight gain. The results of the analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum testify to a statistically significant increase in the concentration of the total protein (by 48.6% in test group minks relative to the control group) with a simultaneous decrease (by 27%) of the albumin fraction. The level of ALT in the control group was lower (by 29%) than in the animals of the experimental groups, while increasing (by 35%) the level of AST. Morphometric parameters of the total skin thickness in experimental animals did not have significant differences. At the same time, their ratio in the general cover varies in the direction of diminishing the thickness of the epidermis and the depth of the hair follicles in animals treated with hydrolyzate. Planimetric indicators of skins raw materials in experienced animals increased by 5.5% compared to representatives of the control group. Based on the evaluation of systemic and local effects of protein hydrolyzate, the effectiveness of its use in cellular fur farming has been established.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):52-54
pages 52-54 views

Veterinary science

A way to increase the effectiveness of vaccination against infectious abortion in the herd horse breeding

Neustroev M.P., Tarabukina N.P., Petrova S.G.


Studied the possibility of using Sakhabactisubtil probiotic based on strains of bacteria Bacillus subtilis c zeolite to enhance the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against equine rhinopneumonitis, and the Salmonella abortion horses herd keeping. At the end of the experience in the month of March experienced group of pregnant mares is considered in comparison with the control showed a higher content of representatives of the normal intestinal microflora – bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria, Enterococcus and spore-bearing aerobic bacteria. Vaccinated mares is adjusted disrupted gut microbiota, promotes the immunobiological responsiveness of the body. As a result, the effectiveness of inactivated vaccines is increased by 12.1%.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):55-57
pages 55-57 views

Behavioral activity of rats in experimental hyperotherosis, and its correction with iodine-containing preparations

Balakirev N.A., Deltsov A.A., Maksimov V.I., Kozlov S.A., Staroverova I.N.


Investigated the behavioral activity of rats in experimental hypothyroidism and its correction with iodine-containing drugs. It has been established that with the introduction of mercazole thyreostatics for 8 weeks in white rats, experimental hypothyroidism develops. In which there was a decrease in the content of thyroxine (T4) to 5.25 ng / ml, an increase in the content of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) to 8.75 ng / ml, while in animals from the control (healthy) group, these indicators were: average T4 content 43.70 ng / ml; the average content of TSH is 1.73 ng / ml. Next, animals with iodine-containing preparations (Sedimin-Fe+, Sedimin-Se+) were administered to patients with experimental hypothyroidism as an intramuscular injection, 2 times with an interval of 10 days, and a bio-iron preparation with trace elements orally for 20 days. . So in the experimental groups that were injected drugs Sedimin-Fe+ and Sedimin-Se+ T4 value recovered to 52.7 ± 3.48 and 54.8 ± 4.17 ng / ml, respectively. In the group of the bio-iron with micronutrients receiving the feed, the T4 value reached 56.2 ± 4.13 ng / ml, while in sick animals this indicator was 5.25 ± 0.55 ng / ml. The value of TSH, after treatment with iodine-containing preparations, also returned to normal and after application of the drug Sedimin-Fe + 0.37 ± 0.14, Sedimin-Se + 0.51 ± 0.18 and Bio-iron with trace elements 0.47 ± 0.15 ng / ml, while in sick animals this indicator was 8.75 ± 0.55 ng / ml.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):58-61
pages 58-61 views

Storage and processing of agricultural produce

Development of an efficient technological scheme for processing graintriticale in bakery flour

Kandrokov R.H., Pankratov G.N.


The results of studies of the processing of initial samples of triticale grain in bakery flour according to the developed reduced and developed technological schemes are presented. When processing Ramses grains, the output of the T-70 grade of tritical flour (ash content no more than 0.70%) was 40% reduced by the technological scheme, and the yield of flour grade T-70 was 63% when processed according to the developed technological scheme. The total yield of flour according to the developed scheme, in comparison with the reduced one, increased by 3.4 and amounted to 75.5%. At the same time, the yield of the low-ash flour T-60 according to GOST 34142-2017 under the developed scheme was 46%, and according to the reduced scheme it was not possible to get a single percent of the tritical flour T-60.When processing grain grade "Saur" yield of tritical flour of grade T-70 and by the reduced scheme and by the developed scheme yield of flour amounted to 77.4%. When processed according to the developed scheme, the total yield of flour increased by 0.6 and amounted to 78.0% in comparison with the reduced scheme. At the same time, according to the developed processing scheme, 42% of tritical flour was obtained by ash content no more than 0.55%, and according to the reduced scheme it was not possible to obtain a single percent of tritical flour with an ash content of 0.55%.It is established that processing of triticale grain according to the developed technological scheme with the use of grinding and sieve systems allows to increase the total yield of flour by 0,6% -3,4% in comparison with the reduced technological scheme.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):62-65
pages 62-65 views


Algorithm taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the initial characteristics of irrigated land on the basis of gis-technologies

Dubenok H.H., Borodychev V.V., Lytov M.N.


The scientific direction within which the present research was carried out is the development of the theoretical foundations for the creation of real-time systems that allow, on the basis of the latest achievements in the field of GIS technologies, to move to the implementation of the concept of precise irrigation. The expansion of the principles of precision farming in the field of agromeliorative technologies is due to the need to take into account the spatial heterogeneity of the initial characteristics of reclaimed land on the basis of a specific, sectoral set of criteria and indicatorsBased on the results of the research, a conceptual scheme for the allocation of territorial control units based on data on intra-field heterogeneity of the indicator is proposed, an algorithm for grouping spatial data to assess the boundaries and spatial position of territorial control units based on GIS technologies is developed, two principal schemes of the site survey for the allocation of territorial control units are considered. The proposed algorithm, implemented on the basis of last generation geographic information technologies, makes it possible to effectively solve the problem of allocation of territorial control units, which is a key problem of taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of the initial characteristics of the irrigated area and has a direct applied value for the creation of precision irrigation technologies.

Rossiiskaia selskokhoziaistvennaia nauka. 2019;1(1):66-70
pages 66-70 views

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