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Vol 9, No 4 (2009)

Articles
Integrative regulatory mechanisms of cardiovascular and digestive systems in stress
Tkachenko B.I., Ovsiannikov V.I.
Abstract
In the article are reflected the basic landmarks of the scientific work of the outstanding scientist academician RAMS В. I. Tkachenko. As a result of the numerous studies, executed under his management, is given experimental substantiation and theoretical generalization of the active role of organ venous vessels in the formation of the venous return of the blood to the heart and in the regulation of the postcapillary resistance, which determines the pressure level in the capillary vascular bed. It is established that the main distinctive special feature of venous vessels in comparison with the arterial is the fact that they have two clearly expressed functions, capacitive and resistive, whereas only resistive function is inherent in arterial vessels. The hypothesis about the multiple-contour regulation of venous vessels, which has the central and peripheral components, which switch on neurohumoral and biophysical mechanisms, is experimentally substantiated, proposed the functional classification of the blood circulatory system instead of the existed anatomical track layout of the blood circulation. Investigations conducted under B.I. Tkachenko management enabled to advance conception of the double adrenergic control of cholinergic neurons in the enteric nervous system.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):4-8
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Cellular-molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis development (Scientific legacy of academician RAMS V. A. Nagornev)
Nagornev V.A., Pigarevsky P.V.
Abstract
The article present the main stages of the scientific search of the prominent Russian medical academician RAMS V. A. Nagornev. Creative and organization activity of academician RAMSV. A. Nagornev allowed collective under his management was carry out investigation complex directed upon to discover cellular-molecular mechanisms for atherosclerosis development, to exploit and to inculcate of new diagnostic methods, to fight with disease, named today "Humanity Killer №1". It is established, that atherosclerosis pathogenesis connected both low density modify lipoproteins and reactions, which developed into vessel wall. As a result of fundamental studying of disease aspects V. A. Nagornev at colleagues have formulated and proved the autoimmune theory of atherosclerosis pathogenesis. Analysis of inflammation reactions into vessel wall showed, that elements of vessel immune answer may launch not only atherogenesis but modulate and check it. The last academician's RAMS V. A. Nagornev creative planes was penetrated idea to exploit atheroprotective vaccine. Conducted experiments allow to hope today, that a suppression of proatherogenic or activation of antiatherogenic immune response may provide new approaches of prevention and treatment this heavy disease.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):9-17
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Tissue matrices: New technologies to increase the diagnostic efficiency in oncogynecology
Aylamayan E.K., Kvetnoy I.M., Bondarev N.E., Bondarev I.E., Kostujchek I.N.
Abstract
The method of tissue microarrays (TMA), invented by H. Battifora [1], was developing actively and modernized during last 20 years. Many aspects of this method have been studied: validation of the results of TMA technology to the results of the standard research methods, the expenses of TMA creation, variants of the estimation of the results of TMA research, tissue antigenicity preservation etc [4, 5,17]. Recently research of paraffin tissue banks in the aim of retrospective search for new tumor markers was considered as «a titanic work». Today TMA method makes this work a reality [12]. The authors of the present publication have used TMA method for studying of malignant gynecologic tumors in big cohorts of patients. High-throughput, estimated in practice, an opportunity of the fast standardized analyses of numerous patients for various biomarkers, economy and adequacy of TMA method allow to recommend this method for practical use. Application of TMA method in clinical histology expands the diagnostic opportunities for different kinds of pathology essentially and promotes the foundation of predictive medicine [14]. The speed with which new prognostic factors, defining the modality of therapy, are generated and transferred into clinical practice, demands the new methodological approaches enabling real-time or retrospective estimation of these clinically significant factors in numerous patients. Wide use ofTMA method will become an integrative part of work for scientific and routine clinical research in future.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):18-26
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Gastric carcinoma major morphological types and their prognostic parameters
Anichkov N.M., Danilova I.A.
Abstract
The authors performed a combined clinical and pathological investigation of 694 cases of gastric carcinoma.They confirmed the opinion on gastric tumor growth variable biological peculiarities; demonstrated the rationality of distinguishing of gastric cancer mixed form in addition to colonic and diffuse forms; gave a number of clinical, pathological and prognostic parameters of the mentioned forms that have classification significance.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):27-30
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Superparamagnetic iron nonoparticles: an efficient tool for direct immobilization of dna-vaccines and tumour targeting
Granov A.M., Evtushenko V.I.
Abstract
We have synthesized superparamagnetic iron particles (SIP) and developed direct non-covalent DNA immobilization method for subsequent magnetic field guided targeting of SIP-DNA complex into rodent tissue and tumor cells. In vitro transcription experiments have revealed functional activity of immobilized DNA template - highly efficient synthesis of full-size RNA transcript (1.8 Kb) of cloned XEF gene. Animal experiments have demonstrated external magnetic field-guided delivery of SIP-immobilized expression vector with human PSA cDNA into rodent tissues. RT-PCR data clear indicate that expression of human PSA transgene was restricted by targeted rodent tissues only. We propose that SIP is an useful tool for targeted delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids including DNA-vaccines into normal and tumor tissues.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):31-36
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Molecular genetic basis of malignant tumor heterogeneity
Semiglazov V.F., Imyanitov E.N., Dashyan G.A., Semiglazov V.S., Mazcko E.D., Ivanov V.G., Bojok A.A., Paltyev R.M., Voskresenskiy D.A., Shamina E.A.
Abstract
Molecular heterogeneity of oncological diseases is revealed to the greatest extent in the case of leucosis (the discovery of «Philadelphia chromosome», i.e. translocation between the 9th and 22nd chromosome). Molecular analysis has allowed defining several subtypes of breast cancer: (i) luminal A (clearly hormone-sensitive), (ii) luminal В (relatively hormone-sensitive), (iii) breast cancer with an upregulation of HER2/neu, (iv) basal-like cancer (frequent in patients with BRCA1 mutation and without HER 2, ER and PR expression). Molecular genetic cancer subtypes differ in their prognosis and responsiveness to various therapies. Many of the discovered growth factors have proved to be targets for successful therapy.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):37-40
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Modeling and results of reconstructive interventions and orthodontic treatment of dental and oral deformations
Kozlov V.A., Devdariani D.S., Kulagina E.V.
Abstract
A method of computer modelling of the facial skeletal structures and normalization of speech and breathe function was worked out. Effective methods of facial structures osteotomy and rational ways of bone segments fixation were proposed. General conclusion of complex reabilitation of 557 patients was made.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):41-49
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Targeted regulation of pathogenic properties in streptococci
Dmitriev A.V., Rozhdestvenskaya A.S., Zutkis A.A., Totolian A.A.
Abstract
For the study of targeted regulation of pathogenic properties in streptococci, the following biological models were selected: DNA-binding regulatory protein Sak189ofS. agalactiae, and DNA-binding regulatory proteins MutR and Rgg of S. pyogenes. The mutR, rgg, andsak189 isogenic mutants were generated. It was shown that inact ivation of transcriptional regulatory genes resulted in the changes in growth kinetics, an ability of the strains to utilize substrates and to grow in the rich and chemically defined media. The Rgg-regulons were identified in three 5. pyogenes strains. The certain differences in the expression of surface and secreted virulence proteins were found in mutant strains compared to the parental strains. Finally, it was demonstrated that inactivation of sakl89, mutR, and rgg genes affected pathogenic properties of streptococci in vitro and in vivo.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):50-58
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Genotyping and subtyping of pathogenic microorganisms in the development of surveillance technologies
Zhebrun A.B., Mukomolov S.L., Narvskaya O.V.
Abstract
Genotyping and molecular typing of microorganisms are principal methodological directions of modern molecular epidemiology. Some results of basic and applied studies of St. Petersburg Pasteur Institute in the field of molecular epidemiology are presented in this article. Different methods were used successfully - complete and limited gene sequencing, restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, spoligotyping, variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) typing, resistotyping and others. New data on population structure and dominating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Helicobacter pylori as well as hepatitis А, В and С viruses, human papilloma viruses that circulate in Russia, in the North-Western Region and in St. Petersburg were obtained. Genetic divergence of rubella virus population and vaccine strains of polioviruses was detected in conditions of routine mass immunizations. Direct evidence of higher efficiency of pathogens genotyping in epidemiological diagnostics was demonstrated in comparison with traditional epidemiological investigations.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):59-67
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Innovation technology in diagnostics and therapy of tuberculosis
Zuravlev V.Y., Belyakov M.V., Archakova L.I., Guseva V.N., Vinogradova T.I., Mushkin A.Y., Vasilieva I.N., Vishnevsky B.I., Levashev Y.N., Gordeev S.K.
Abstract
The opportunity of use microchip for fast and specific diagnostics of multidrug resistant of M. tuberculosis to isoniazid (in genes katG, inhA, ahpC), to rifampicin (a gene rpoB) is studied. It is carried out research of hereditary predisposition to a tuberculosis of lungs on the basis of molecular HLA typing genes of II class of the main complex histocompatibility loci HLA-DQB1*and HLA-DRB1*.The possibilities to use in the surgery ofTB and non-specific spondylitis the new carbon-carbon implants which prepared with nano-technologies, were examined in experimental and clinical studies. The new implants has a high stiffness, they can protect the spine from deterioration of kyphosis after surgery, they stimulate the bio-implants' adaptation in combine anterior fusion and they can used as a container for antibiotics with their long-time therapeutic concentration in plastic zone without complications and side effects. The combination of the given innovative approaches allows to identify simultaneously the mutations responsible for sensitivity of the activator of a tuberculosis to the basic antitubercular preparations, to generate at an early stage of group with the raised risk of a failure of tubercular defeat and purposefully to spend the strengthened, individualized therapy.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):68-74
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Innovative immunobiotechnology for recombinant cytokine drug forms development
Ketlinsky S.A., Simbirtsev A.S., Ischenko A.M.
Abstract
Cytokines represent a new regulatory system existing alongside with the neuroendocrine regulation and aimed for the body homeostasis regulation during pathogen invasion and tissue damage. During past three decades genes of major cytokines were cloned and biologically active recombinant analogues were synthesized. Future of the cytokine therapy is connected with the recombinant molecules obtained using modern immunobiotechnology. Several new recombinant cytokine drug forms for clinical use are developed in the State Research Institute of Highly Pure Biopreparations, including that of interferon alpha 2b, mterleukin-1 beta and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Among them human recombinant interleukin-1 beta (Betaleukin) is registered for clinical use only in Russia. New IL-1 drug forms include ointments, geles, biodegradable sponges for therapy of Patients with burns, infected wounds, trophic ulcers. Use of IL-1 ointment for trophic ulcers therapy in patients with diabetes e to high healing efficacy and allowed to avoid amputation. Recombinant interferon alpha aerosol drug form is used for the erapy of patients with acute viral respiratory infections including influenza. Aerosolized interferon application decreased ness duration for 2-3 days.This clinical result could give very big economical effect in the whole country. In general topical cytokine application has several advantages including high local drug concentration in the desired organ, and absence of systemic adverse effects. Nowadays cytokines are widely used for the therapy of infectious diseases, immunodeficiency and activ t^ FUrt' 1er development of this therapeutic direction will give new highly effective drugs with enhanced pharmacological
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):75-82
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New approaches to donor plasma photodynamic pathogen-inactivation on the base of fullerenes-containing photosensibilization agents
Selivanov E.A., Sivakova N.P., Ivanova R.P., Petrova A.L., Belousova I.M., Muravjova T.D.
Abstract
The problem of transfusion-transmissible infections risk reduction remains one of the actual problems of transfusion medicine in Russia. As to WHO data, each tenth patient needs blood or blood components and preparations transfusions. Pathogen-reduction (inactivation) provides a proactive approach to reducing transfusion-transmissible infections. Several pathogen-inactivation technologies are being developed, with photodynamic inactivation as one of the promising approaches. The article is devoted to a new photodynamic pathogen-inactivation method on the base of fullerenes-nanostructures.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):83-86
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Combined subintimal and intraluminal angioplasty in the treatment of critical limb ischemia
Kaputin M.Y., Ovcharenko O.V., Platonov S.A., Soroka V.V., Sidorov V.N., Bagnenko S.F., Dudanov I.P.
Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop a new approach in the endovascular treatment of critical limb ischemia based on the combined use of subintimal and intraluminal angioplasty methods. Patients with critical limb ischemia were considered suitable candidates for angioplasty if they did not show irreversible changes of the limb that would require amputation at the shin or thigh level. Between 2004 and 2008, 139 endovascular interventions were carried out in 126 patients. The procedure was technically successful in 90.5% of cases. Such a high frequency of success was achieved due to the use of standards for endovascular treatment. The frequency of major complications did not exceed 7%. The probability of absence of critical limb ischemia recurrence within one year amounted to 65%. A significant part of the patients were regarded as «unsuitable» for surgical treatment due to severe concomitant pathology, "unsatisfactory" state of the distal circulation or the presence of infection on the foot. This, together with the low life expectancy of the patients, shows the obvious advantages of combined subintimal and intraluminal angioplasty over surgical revascularization as a method of critical limb ischemia treatment.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):87-95
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Innovative methods in the treatment of systemic autoimmune diseases
Mazurov V.I., Belyaeva I.B., Dolgih S.V.
Abstract
Article is devoted actual problems of treatment of rheumatic diseases. Efficiency and safety of various methods of treatment of these diseases, including with application of biological agents is analysed.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):96-106
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The fundamental importance of new biomarkers of brain ischemia
Skoromets A.A., Dambinova S.A., Granstrem O.K., Skoromets A.P., Skoromets T.A., Smolko D.G., Shumilina M.V., Hunteev G.A.
Abstract
During the analysis of results of research of various biomarkers at 50 patients with stroke, at 40 patients with brain ischemia owing to an atherosclerosis carotid arteries, at 30 patients with epilepsy syndromes, at 20 children born by mothers-addicts, the conclusion about the big clinical importance of such biomarkers, as PARK7 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase A, S-100b, Acetylpolyamine oxidase [AcPAO], S-jet fiber, GluRI an AMPA-receptor, autoantibodies (aAbs) to opiate and glutamate to receptors (type AMPA and glutamate to receptors NMDA, NmDa- autoantibodies, NR1, NR-2A-NR2D and NR3A) which help early diagnostics of pathological process, its degree of expressiveness and dynamics under the influence of therapeutic actions is made. Wide introduction in clinical practice of biomarkers is recommended: NR1, NR-2A-NR2D and NR3A, GluRI an AMPA-receptor. Literary data about genetic and biochemical markers is cited at degenerate diseases of nervous system, at Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):107-112
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Innovative technologies in prophylaxis, diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular diseases
Shlakhto E.V., Tsyrlin V.A., Petrischev N.N., Galagudza M.M., Zverev D.A., Anisimov S.V., Kurapeev D.I., Korolev D.V., Lebedev D.S.
Abstract
Intoroducing innovative approaches into the clinical practice leads to a substantial improvement of treatment results for socially important diseases and to a reduction of rehabilitation costs. New technologies are used in the prophylaxis as well as treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This article gives a brief description of the innovative projects in various stages of realization, aimed to develop high-technology methods for screening, diagnostics and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We especially focus on the description of the social and economic effect expected from introducing the new products, technologies and services.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):113-120
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Pre-operative prognosis of gastric cancer and colorectal cancer metastases using the tumor markers
Kurygin A.A., Maystrenko N.A., Khrykov G.N., Pastushenkov V.L.
Abstract
The pre-operative data of tumor markers, determinated with immunochemical method, studied in 144 colorectal cancer and 60 gastric cancer patients with different stages of tumor. The carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigens CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 are analyzed for gastric cancer. The colorectal cancer patients are analyzed with CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 242.The findings compare with results of postoperative tumor stages. Established that joint increasing of any two tumor markers (CEA, CA 19-9, CA 72-4) are indicate on gastric cancer metastasis with probability 83,3%. The frequency of exposure colorectal cancer metastasis are increasing with number of increased oncomarkers and amount to 90,9% at increase three tumor markers: CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 242. The normal level of all tumor markers in colorectal cancer exclude IV stage of tumor (distant metastases) and with probability 85,7% testify to regional nodes metastases absence.
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):121-129
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Simbirczev Semen Alexandrovich. On the 80 anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):130-131
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Totolyan Artem Akopovich. On the 80 anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):132-132
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Ivanova Vera Vasilievna. On the 75 anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):133-134
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Korneva Elena Andreevna. On the 80 anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):135-136
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Nagornev Vladimir Anatolievich
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):137-138
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Tkachenko Boris Ivanovich
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2009;9(4):139-139
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