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Vol 12, No 3 (2014)

Articles
Prediction of F1 progeny variation in tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) from parental divergence assessed by SSR markers
Shapturenko M.N., Tarutina L.A., Mishin L.A., Kubrak S.V., Kilchevskiy A.V., Khotyleva L.V.
Abstract
Background: Although the use of heterosis is one of the most significant achievements of agriculture, the genetic mechanisms of this phenomenon still remain unclear. Development of numerous molecular tools stimulated efforts to determine the prognostic criteria for selection of best parental combinations. In result of studying the relationship between heterosis in F1 and genetic divergence of the parents, the prospects of utilizing DNA markers have not been persuasively established due to inconsistent findings. Materials and methods: Molecular-genetic data have been used to predict heterosis in F1 hybrids of tomato. Estimates of the genetic dissimilarity of parents for all pair-wise combinations of testcross (4 × 6) were performed based on patterns of 11 SSR informative markers (PIC 0.28-0.85). The general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining ability of line, mid-parent heterosis (MPH) and high-parent heterosis (HPH) of F1 were assessed. Relationship between GD, MPH and HPH were calculated by correlation analysis. Result: The level of total SSR divergence of the parental lines was significantly associated with heterosis and SCA (sij) for fruit weight and fruit number per plant. Notably, the highest values of MPH and HPH were obtained in the most divergent pair-wise combinations. Lowest negative values of heterosis were observed in the F1 progeny from the least divergent lines. But the main group of F1 progeny demonstrates wide variation of heterosis due to SSR GD have low prognostic potential. Conclusion: Estimation of GDs may be useful for predicting promising combinations, but has limitations, since only a part of F1 heterotic advantage may be explained by the genetic divergence of its parents. Probably for understanding and manipulating heterosis the genetic divergence must be dissected to select “positive” markers, i. e. those that allow identifying the part of heterogeneity associated with the expression of heterosis in F1.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):3-11
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Cryptic species in plants and their detection by genetic differentiation between populations
Shneyer V.S., Kotseruba V.V.
Abstract
Many cryptic species were found during last years in animals, fungi, algae by their intraspecious genetic differentiation revealed by PCR-based methods. But they were rarely found yet in plants. In this review, we summarized the information on detection of cryptic species of spore and seed plants by the data on genetic differentiation between populations. Reasons for their rare discovery, the surrounding circumstances, the distinguishing features, and other issues are discussed.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):12-31
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The History of Manayunkia [Polychaeta: Sedentaria: Sabellidae] propagation in North Eastern Asia
Pudovkina T.A., Sitnikova T.Y., Matveyev A.N., Shcherbakov D.Y.
Abstract
This study aimes to elucidate the history of propagation of the freshwater Manayunkia polychaetes in North-Eastern Asia and their speciation in Lake Baikal. Nucleotide polymorphism analysis of of the CO1 Folmer fragment allowed to establish the sequence of migration and speciation events. Phylogenetic analysis and bayesian comparison of possible scenarios supports the hypothesis that the origin of the Manayunkia migration was the Kolyma river basin, from where the polychaetes migrated into Baikal and diverged into at least three species, one of which (M. godlewskii) served as the source of migrants into the Lake Baunt system.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):32-42
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Inheritance of acaricide resistance in inbreeding lines of two-spotted spider mite
Sundukov O.V., Tulayeva I.A., Zubanov Y.A.
Abstract
Background: The two-spotted spider mite is one of the economically important crop pests. Its control has been and still is largely based on the use of acaricides. However, due to its short life cycle and abundant progeny it is able to develop resistance to acaricides very rapidly. The information on mechanisms of resistance is the aim of devising resistance management strategies. Materials and methods: A laboratory-selected susceptible and resistant inbreeding lines of the spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. were used to determine toxicological, cross-resistance, biochemical and genetic data. Mortality caused by acaricide in the F1 progeny and backcrosses with F1 females revealed striking differences in the mode of inheritance. Results: The resistance ratio (RR) calculated from the LC50s of selected susceptible and resistant to dimethoate, bifenthrin, abamectin and bromopropylate lines were 1000, 2600, 2000 and 2000-fold, respectively. Resistance to dimethoate is monogenic dominant inheritance associated with a strong increase in isoenzyme carboxylesterase activity and that could be considered as biochemical marker. Mortality caused by selecting by abamectin in the F1 and backcross progeny indicated that the mode of inheritance resistance is dominant digenic and by selecting bifenthrin and bromopropylate was incompletely recessive linked with two main genetic mutations. Conclusion: The biochemical/physiological mechanisms of resistance to acaricides can be categorized as target site insensitivity or regulatory changes in gene expression elevated some enzyme activity that determines the degree viability in arthropods.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):43-51
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Molecular genetic study of geographic forms of ladybird beetles Adalia bipunctata and A. frigida
Zakharov I.A., Shaikevich Y.V.
Abstract
Background: European ladybird Adalia bipunctata has forms with red and black color of the elytra. On the red elytra usually there are two round black spots, on the black - 2-4-6 red spots. A. b. turanica, A. b. revelierei, A. b. fasciatopunctata and A. frigida differ from the European A. b. bipunctata form by many spots on red or pink elytra. The taxonomic status of these forms is unclear. Materials and methods: We studied DNA diversity of the COI gene of mtDNA with C1-j-1951 и C1-N-2618 primers (Schulenburg et al., 2002) and ITS2 sequences of rRNA with 5,8S and 28S primers (Proft et al., 1999). The analysis of nucleotide polymorphism from aligned DNA sequences of both COI and ITS2 data was done using the MEGA4 software (Tamura et. al. 2007). Results: 20 variable mtDNA haplotypes in the COI gene were found among A. b. bipunctata, A. b. fasciatopunctata, A. b. revelierei and A. b. turanica, but none of them was unique to any form. All studied specimens of A. b. bipunctata, A. b. fasciatopunctata, A. b. revelierei and A. b. turanica, regardless of mitochondrial haplotype, had almost identical sequences of ITS2. Divergence recorded between species A. bipunctata and A. frigida is 1.8% in ITS2 and 4.3 % in COI. Conclusion: A. b. revelierei, A. b. turanica and A. b. fasciatopunctata are geographical variety (or subspecies) of A. bipunctata. Based on the differences in the DNA structure, we suggest that Adalia bipunctata and Adalia frigida are close but distinct indepentent species.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):52-59
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Dynamics of chromosomal aberrations level in residents of an industrial city in conditions of changing atmosphere pollution
Minina V.I., Druzhinin V.G., Golovina T.A., Tolochko T.A., Meyer A.V., Volkov A.N., Bakanova M.L., Savchenko Y.A., Ryzhkova A.V., Titov R.A., Larin S.A., Kulemin Y.Y.
Abstract
Background. The level and range of chromosomal aberrations in inhabitants of Kemerovo, a large industrial center of Western Siberia, were studied in two time periods: from 1986 to 2000 and from 2001 to 2012. Materials and methods. Total of 668 inhabitants were examined for chromosomal aberrations in their blood lymphocytes: 333 in the first time period and 335 in the second one. Official data on emission of air pollutants in Kemerovo, obtained by the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kemerovo region in the period from 1986 to 2012, were also analyzed.Results. We found that frequency of aberrations among residents in Kemerovo was lower in 2000s as compared to the previous time period studied, which is consistent with reduced emission of pollutants into the air in Kemerovo. The new value of the background level of chromosomal aberrations in Kemerovo residents not contacting industrial genotoxicants was established at 1.48 ± 0.08% and can be used in further genetic and ecological studies. Conclusion. Obtained results confirm coherence of environmental pollution and mutagenesis in populations of industrial cities.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):60-70
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Serotonin transporter gene 5-HTTLPR VNTR allele frequency distribution in Africa and Eurasia
Gureyev A.S., Kim A.A., Sanina Y.D., Shirmanov V.I., Koshechkin V.A., Balanovskiy O.P., Yankovskiy N.K., Borinskaya S.A.
Abstract
Background. VNTR-polymorphism at 5 HTTLPR regulatory region of human serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, which is associated with some psychiatric diseases and personality traits, is presented by two alleles, S and L, affecting the gene transcription level. A correlation between the S allele frequency in populations of European and Asian origin and a Hofstede’s individualism-collectivism index was revealed and a hypothesis of culture-gene coevolution was suggested (Chiao, Blizinsky, 2010). Methods. As another reason for the correlation we examined underlying population genetic substructure, which may affect genetic association level. Results. We have experimentally established the 5 HTTLPR genotypes for 2144 individuals to calculate S and L allele frequencies in 21 populations of Eurasia and Africa. In contrast to Eurasia populations, we have found low S allele frequencies in all four African populations studied, although the collectivism index in the populations was high. The total set of Eurasian and African populations analysis does not confirm the correlation (R= 0.263, p=0.146). We have applied principal component (PC) analysis to check a correlation between S allele frequency distribution and a frequency distribution for alleles which are supposed to be neutral. PC analysis for 68 alleles of five CODIS STR loci revealed correlation between PC2 and S allele frequency (R= 0.820, p<0.0001). The correlation means that S allele frequency distribution corresponds to general genetic variability distribution in the human populations studied. The correlation between the Hofestede’s index and frequency of four out of 68 STR alleles is even higher than the correlation with S allele frequency in the same populations. Conclusion. Our findings do not support the hypothesis on culture-gene coevolution of “individualism-collectivism” and the S allele frequency of serotonin transporter gene.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):71-86
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Cytogenetic analysis of the residents of North Ossetia living in ecologically different regions
Chshiyeva F.T.
Abstract
Background. Cytogenetic biomarkers are the most frequently used end point in human biomonitoring studies and are used extensively to assess the impact of environmental, occupational and medical factors on genomic stability.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on blood samples from 55 residents living in ecologically different areas of North Ossetia: 47 adults with the mean age of 34 ± 3.2 and 8 children with the mean age of 14 ± 1.0. Chromosome aberration analysis was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes, cultures were incubated for 48h.Results. The results of the study showed a statistically significant difference between the frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations among the residents living in ecologically different areas of North Ossetia. During the cytogenetic studies, three groups of residents living at different distances from the pollution source (a metallurgical enterprise) were examined, and significant variations of chromosomal aberrations frequencies have been found. In residents living up to 3 km from the enterprise the average frequency of chromosome aberrations was maximal (4.3 ± 0.5), while in residents from remote areas (more than 5 km) the frequency was 2.8 ± 0.3, р ≤ 0.003. Among the examined children frequencies of chromosomal aberrations were 4.1 ± 0.7 and 1.3 ± 0.5, respectively (р ≤ 0.04). Conclusion. A high average frequency of metaphases with aberrations is an indication of adverse environmental conditions which have developed after the accident. Increase of the proportion of chromosome type aberrations in the spectrum of cytogenetic damage among residents of North Ossetia allows to assume the presence of mutagenic effects of chemical as well as radiation nature. "Afobazol" has shown protective properties in donors blood of residents of the region affected by anthropogenic press.
Ecological genetics. 2014;12(3):87-94
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