Vol 59, No 5 (2019)

Marine Chemiatry

Dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Yenisey gulf during open water period

Makkaveev P.N., Nalbandov Y.R., Polukhin A.A., Schuka S.A.


On the materials of several SIO RAS cruises and archival hydrological and hydrochemical data, the dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Yenisey Gulf was investigated. There are 3 main areas, where mass sedimentation of suspended matter and oxidation of organic matter (OM) in the upper sediment layer takes place. The first region of oxidation of OM was south of 72° N, its existence is associated with mass sedimentation of dissolved and suspended matter on the geochemical barrier. Two other areas of decomposition of the OM (elevated dCtot) are located downstream (between 73° and 74° and north of 75° N) and most likely originated at the orographic barrier, where the change in the dynamic characteristics of the riverine flow and the topography of the bay bottom creates conditions for sedimentation. Comparison of the difference in the observed Ctot value with the AOU value showed that in 1993, the change in the Ctot content was provided by the oxidation processes of OM. In 2011, carbon emission into water was most likely associated with the transformation of mineral suspension and/or carbon exchange in bottom water with bottom sediments. In 2016, a decrease in the Ctot content was observed almost everywhere in bottom layer. It is most realistic to assume that such a distribution is associated with carbon sorption on suspensions. Despite the many similar features of the distribution of hydrochemical characteristics in the bay, the change in the content of dissolved inorganic carbon in the investigated area has differed greatly in different years. In our opinion, the reason for the fact is the variability of the discharge of the Yenisey River in different years.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):701-713
pages 701-713 views

Suboxic and anoxic conditions in the Gdansk basins’ deep water (the Baltic sea)

Artamonova K.V., Demidov A.N., Zuev O.A.


Variability of oxygen and hydrogen sulphide concentrations in the Gdansk basin’s deep water of the Baltic Sea for the last 25 years was analyzed. It was shown that suboxic and anoxic conditions in deep water were mainly determined by Baltic inflow frequency and intensity. Oxygen concentration in the bottom layer of the Gdansk basins’ increased strongly in 1–3 months after Major Baltic Inflow events (MBI). There were three periods of strong increasing of dissolve oxygen concentration in deep water since 1992 till 2018 after MBI in 1993, in 2003 and 2014–2016. It was shown that at the bottom of the Gdansk basin’s hydrogen sulphide was detected during 7–9 months till 2–2.5 years after MBI. Quality evaluation of dissolved oxygen distribution reanalysis was also conducted in this work. It can be noted good reproduction of field data by the reanalysis in its quality part; however, in most cases the observable maximum concentrations in dissolved oxygen distribution are understated, sometimes even several times.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):714-723
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Marine Biology

Phytoplankon of Khatanga bay, shelf and continental slope of the Western Laptev sea

Sukhanova I.N., Flint M.V., Fedorov A.V., Sakharova E.G., Artemyev V.A., Makkaveev P.N., Nedospasov A.A.


The research was done at transect (11 stations) from inner part of the Khatanga Bay in the south to continental slope area in the north from 17 to 20 September 2017. Four biotops with different parameters of pelagic environment, composition, quantitative characteristics and vertical distribution of phytoplankton were allocated: inner part of the Khatanga Bay, estuarine frontal zone, western shelf of the Laptev Sea and continental slope area. Inner part of the Khatanga Bay and continental slope area were characterized by the highest values of phytoplankton numbers and biomass, which reached 1×106 cell/l и 160 mg/m3, respectively. Formation of maximum at the depth of 45 meters was typical for phytoplankton vertical distribution in continental slope area. Algae biomass in the maximum reached 400 mg/m3 which was the highest value for the transect. Well pronounced latitudinal zoning in phytoplankton communities structure was revealed in the western part of the Laptev Sea which was similar to that in another areas the Arctic seas under strong impact of Siberian rivers discharge.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):724-733
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Distribution and feeding of dominant zooplankton species under autumn coccolithophorid development in the eastern part of the Barents sea

Sergeeva V.M., Drits A.V., Flint M.V.


Studies of zooplankton spatial distribution and feeding were conducted in the eastern part of the Barents Sea in early October 2014. The study period was characterized by positive anomalies of the water temperature in the upper mixed layer and by the dominance of coccolithophorids in phytoplankton. The scale of spatial variability of zooplankton biomass (6.1–43.3 mg DW m-3) over the 30,000 km2 investigated area was comparable to the range of interannual variation of zooplankton biomass in the Barents Sea. Calanus finmarchicus and Metridia longa dominated in the zooplankton community. The spatial distribution of C. finmarchicus was correlated with the depth: at the stations, where the depth exceeded 250 m, the biomass was threefold higher than that at the shallower stations. Both species performed diel vertical migrations ascending to the upper 50 m layer during night and actively consuming there coccolithophorids and tintinnids Acanthostomella norvegica. Taking into account the contribution of tintinnids, the amount of assimilated organic carbon in C. finmarchicus CV, CIV and M. longa CV, CIV was 2.6, 8.3 and 3.5, 4.9% of body carbon content, respectively, and compensated therefore the metabolic costs. Grazing impact on the autotrophic phytoplankton by the populations of C. finmarchicus and M. longa did not exceed 5% of its biomass and was preconditioned by the abundance and the feeding activity of migrating copepods.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):734-745
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Role of plankton in the vertical flux in the East Siberian sea shelf

Drits A.V., Pasternak A.F., Kravchishina M.D., Arashkevich E.G., Sukhanova I.N., Flint M.V.


Role of plankton in the vertical flux in the East Siberian Sea was studied in the 69 cruise of the RV “Akademik Mstislav Keldysh” in September 2017. Vertical fluxes were measured in sediment traps samples collected in the area of Indigirka river plume and in the marine shelf area. Mass vertical flux and particulate organic carbon flux varied from 80 to 530 mg/м2/d and from 16 to 49 mgС/м2/d, accordingly. Phytoplankton in sediment traps was dominated by cysts and spores of diatoms and dinoflagellates. Phytoplankton flux increased with depths from 0.22–0.33 to 1.2–1.3 мgС/м2/d. Fecal pellet fluxes (7–12 mgС/м2/d) was almost similar at two studied stations and did not change with depth. Zooplankton in the traps was dominated by houses of larvacean and carcasses of copepods Jashnovia tolli and Calanus glacialis Flux of zooplankton varied from 3 to 17 mgС/m2/d. The influence of the continental runoff reflected in a decrease of the proportion of planktonogenic components in the vertical flux of organic carbon. In the river plume area their total contribution to organic carbon flux did not exceed 30%; on the marine shelf it reached 80%.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):746-754
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Spatial variability of primary production and chlorophyll in the Laptev sea in august–september

Demidov A.B., Gagarin V.I., Arashkevich E.G., Makkaveev P.N., Konyukhov I.V., Vorobieva O.V., Fedorov A.V.


Spatial distribution of phytoplankton primary production and chlorophyll was studied based on the data of three cruises carried out in August–September of 2015, 2017 and 2018. The average value of water column primary production (IPP) along the transect from Lena`s mouth to the continental slope was 2.8 fold higher than that one along the transect from Khatanga`s mouth, which was explained by the level of incident radiation and nutrients concentration. Along the cross-slope transects increasing of photosynthetically layer integrated chlorophyll (Chlph) occurred due to developing of deep maxima. IPP and Chlph increasing was registered in the vicinity of the continental slope. In August–September the averaged IPP value was < 100 mgC m-2 d-1 that is the evidence of oligotrophy of the Laptev Sea at the end of summer and at the beginning of autumn.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):755-770
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Marine Geology

Black carbon in the marine boundary layer over the North Atlantic and seas of the Russian arctic in june-september 2017

Shevchenko V.P., Kopeikin V.M., Novigatsky A.N., Malafeev G.V.


The paper presents the results of a study of the concentrations of black carbon in the marine boundary layer over the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic, the Norwegian, the Barents, the Kara and the Laptev seas from June 30 to September 29, 2017 in the 68th and 69th voyages of research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh". Black carbon has a significant impact on climate change and the degree of pollution of the Arctic. Black carbon is formed as a result of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (primarily coal, oil) and biomass or biofuel. It consists of submicron particles and their aggregates and can be transported a great distance from the source. Samples were taken by pumping air for 4–6 hours through quartz filters Hahnemule at an altitude of 10 m above sea level in a headwind to prevent smoke of the vessel from entering the filters. Subsequently, the black carbon content was determined in the laboratory by the aetalometric method. The backward trajectories of the air mass transfer and the black carbon particles transported by them to the sampling points were calculated using the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model at http://www.arl.noaa.gov/ready.html. The conducted studies show low values of black carbon concentrations (<50 ng/m3) along the expedition route when air masses came from the background areas of the North Atlantic and the Arctic. High concentrations of black carbon (100–200 ng/m3 and higher) are characteristic for areas with active navigation (the South-Eastern Baltic, the North Sea) and near ports (eg Reykjavik), as well as for incoming air masses from the industrialized regions of Europe to South-Eastern Baltic and from areas of oil and gas fields where associated gas is flared (the North, the Norwegian and the Kara seas).

Океанология. 2019;59(5):771-776
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Dispersed sedimentary matter of the Barents sea

Politova N.V., Kravchishina M.D., Novigatsky A.N., Lokhov A.S.


The results of the study of the distribution and composition of the dispersed sedimentary matter (suspended matter) in the water column of the Barents Sea were presented in the article. The distribution of suspended matter in the sea obeys the laws of circumcontinental (for surface distribution) and vertical zonality. At the same time, the absolute values of the weight and volume concentrations of the suspended matter themselves are low (on average less than 0.5 mg/l and less than 0.6 mm3/l, respectively). The highest values of all parameters of the suspended matter were found in the Pechora Sea, the most southeastern part of the Barents Sea, where are the abrasion of the shores and the bottom and the Pechora River runoff. Surface and bottom peaks are characteristic of the vertical distribution of the suspended matter. A mild intrusion of the nepheloid layer enriched in the suspended matter into the deep layers was observed on the continental slope of the Bear Island Trench when the depth makes a sharp fall.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):777-790
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Bone detritus in sediments of Tethis ocean

Baturin G.N.


The comparative study of the Oligocene bone breccia geochemistry in the lower part of the Oligocene deposits (Mangishlak, Oligocene — Miocene) has been studied along with the recent uranium deposits. Studies of the Namibian shelf samples where the series of macro- and microelements have been analized, including major and minor elements, which showes their similarity of major elements and miner elements in the both deposits old and Recent samples. From the other side the similarity between uranium mineralization has been found in the uranium mineralization in Maikop and recent bones on the Namibian shelve. The paleogeographic data of the Maikop Basin showed that the ore deposits have been formed in the productive shallow sea where mass mortality of the fish happened often as well as in present Ocean. The high values of metal concentration is the older bones in the Tethis are related to evaporation and saturation of marine water.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):791-802
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Lithodynamic studies near the Northwest Atlantic Mid-ocean channel

Bashirova L.D., Dorokhova E.V., Sivkov V.V.


In AMK-4474 marine sediment core, recovered from the northern part of the eastern (left) levee of the Northwest Atlantic Mid-Ocean Channel, two stratigraphic units were identified. The lower unit is represented by the Late Quaternary fine-grained sediments of the upper turbidite sequences. The presence of a 17–24 µm mode in grain-size distributions within the thin silt interlayers in the lower unit may reflect a sorting process of sedimentary material by the spillover of turbidity currents which is similar to the contour currents activity. This allows applying an indicator of the contour current speed — sortable silt (SS) content — to estimate the intensity of the spill-over current. The upper unit, formed during the last 26 ka, is represented by pelagic sediments. The presence of the fine-grained interlayer in the upper unit of AMK-4474 core is apparently due to a decrease in IRD supply to the study area.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):803-809
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The rises of the Amerasia basin, arctic ocean, and possible equivalents in the Atlantic ocean

Poselov V.A., Verba V.V., Zholondz S.M., Butsenko V.V.


Main positive morphostructures of the Amerasia Basin, the Lomonosov Ridge, Alpha Ridge, Mendeleev Rise, Chukchi Plateau and Northwind Ridge, have been considered from geomorphological, geological and geophysical aspects. Time and Depth seismic sections have been provided up to the Moho discontinuity from the Lomonosov Ridge and its junction with the Greenland and East-Siberian shelves. Time and Depth seismic sections of the Mendeleev-Alpha rises and Chukchi Plateau are presented too. The sections were set up based on seismic surveys: deep seismic sounding and multichannel seismic reflection. Some similarities have been reflected for the foregoing land structure depth sections and typical sections of the continental crust. Brief geological and geophysical data have been presented for the positive morphostructures of the Atlantic Ocean such as the Rockall and Vøring plateaus, the continental nature of which is established beyond all doubt. Genesis of positive morphostructures in the northern Atlantic Ocean and the Arctic Ocean has been connected with processes of continental rifting and concomitant intraplate magmatism.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):810-825
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Composition and formation of the Whale Ridge volkanits

Eroshenko D.V., Kharin G.S.


Summarizes the materials according to the chemical composition of the volcanic rocks of the Whale Ridge. The analysis showed that the formation of the Eastern and Central parts of the ridge in the Cretaceous and Paleogene was determined, first of all, by the appearance of fractured decompression foci, which arose as a result of shear-thrust dislocations during the split of the Gondwana. Basalts of the Central part of the Whale Ridge have signs of contamination by the crustal matter. Tristan Plume apparently indirectly participated in the formation of the Whale Ridge rocks in the Cretaceous and Paleogene: he partially enriched the melting centers with his material, which originated in the deformed powerful (>20 km) crust. The spreading factor manifested itself in the upper Cretaceous (toleite volcanism of the Eastern part of the ridge) and in the Neogene-Quaternary time, when the power of the newly formed oceanic crust began to decrease. This allowed the "fading" Tristan plume to form a system of underwater volcanic mountains in the Western part of the Whale Ridge.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):826-843
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Deformation of the Anapa bay-bar underwater submerge slope from 2012 to 2018

Kosyan R.D., Fedorova E.A.


The paper presents long-term dynamic of the Anapa bay-bar submerge slope. The Anapa bay-bar submerge slope contains five morphological elements — Solenoe Lake, Bugazskaya bay-bar, Blagoveshchensky butte, Vityazevskaya bay-bar, section from Vityazevo to Anapa. The erosion-accumulation sites change from year to year. In general, from 2012 to 2018 the amount of sediments on the Anapa bay-bar submerge slope decreased by 1.89 million m3. On the sites Solenoe lake and Blagoveshchensky butte from 2012 to 2018 accumulation are 0.20 and 0.14 million m3, respectively. On the sites Bugazskaya and Vityazevskaya bay-bars from 2012 to 2018 erosion are 0.52 and 0.64 million m3, respectively. On the section from Vityazevo to Anapa from 2013 to 2018 erosion is 1.08 million m3. The greatest changes in the underwater relief occur in a 600-meter coastal area to a depth of 6–7 m. The underwater bars are formed and moved just in this area.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):844-851
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Virtual dipole moment evolution within earth geological history

Schreider A.A., Sazhneva A.E., Varga P., Denis C.


The data of the International Bank of Digital Information on the time distribution of the virtual dipole moment (VDM), supplemented by the data of more recent studies (a total of 5645 values) were used as the basis of the virtual dipole moment values distribution analysis for the Earth history within the concept of the Earth's magnetic dipole field. The results revealed the positive linear trend from 4.2×1022 4.2 billion of years ago up to Am2 to 5.15×1022 Am2 at resent time. Unevenly distrib-uted VDM fluctuations varying in time from 1.7 to 3.7×1022 Am2 with a wavelength varying from 220 to 920 million years and with the average periodicity near 570 Ma were estimated on the back-ground of linear increase of the field. By the order of magnitude this corresponds to the duration of the geological Wilson cycle. For the first time it is revealed that the magnetic field magnitude oscil-lations in time have an oscillating character with decay towards the present.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):852-858
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Research Methods and Facilities

Vertical distribution of brine and volume structure thin one year ice Amur bay on base NMR and MRT dates

Mel’nichenko N.A., Tyuveev A.V., Lazaryuk A.Y., Savchenko V.E., Kustova E.V.


It was studying distribution of liquid and solid phases in pores one year sea ice on Amur Bay with using NMR and MRT methods in period 2013–2016. According to findings predominant factor in ice structure formation is snow cover. The patterns of brine content and solid phase distribution are considered in interdependence with air temperature and corresponding ice layer temperatures in compliance with preceding weather conditions. Differences in vertical profiles for temperature and salinity for winter and spring periods was marked. The main features of spatial phase dictribution in thin ice in comparision Arctic ice are presented. Just snow cover effects on ice parameters was demonstrated using data 2013–2016. The relationship of interlayings number in ice with its thickness, air temperature, and snow cover thickness is discussed. The main features of spatial phase dictribution in thin ice in comparision Arctic ice are presented. The empirical relation for calculations thin sea ice thickness was suggested.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):859-869
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Device of registration the lateral flow of sedimentary matter

Mityaev M.V.


A new sedimentation device was developed and tested. "Device of registration the lateral flow of sedimentary matter" is intended for sampling a sedimentary particulate matter moving in the water column in the lateral directions. The device can be successfully used to solve sedimentological, biological, ecological problems, including the monitoring of solid pollutants transfer.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):870-874
pages 870-874 views

New technology of coring for bottom soft sediments

Konstantinov E.A.


A new technology for coring of weakly consolidated sediment is proposed. The technology includes the original coring system and the way it is operated. The technology is based on a number of original solutions: 1) unification of the elements of the drill string, where household pipes made of PVC are used as a sampler and rods; 2) the use of the valve mechanism of a simple conical construction; 3) the method of vertical freezing of the core in open air. The coring system makes it possible to obtain the cores of the bottom sediment in winter from ice at a depth of up to 7–10 meters. Field tests have shown that the proposed system is inexpensive, easy to assemble and operate, but at the same time very effective and reliable. The new system can be as an alternative or complement to existing systems for coring of bottom sediments.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):875-880
pages 875-880 views


Hydrochemical regime of the Lena river in august 2018

Georgiadi A.G., Tananaev N.L., Dukhova L.A.


The new hydrochemical data collected during August 2018 cruise from Yakutsk to Kyusyur, in the middle and lower reaches of the Lena River, are presented. Field and laboratory data were collated into a database containing 80+ parameters, notably stable water isotopes, suspended sediment concentration and dissolved organic carbon. Presented results allow the quantitative assessment of fluxes of dissolved and suspended material toward the Lena River delta, and the deduction of the regularities of transformation of these fluxes.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):881-884
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Research on cruise 38 of the R/V Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov in the Barents sea

Nikiforov S.L., Sorokhtin N.O., Dmitrevskiy N.N., Ananiev R.A., Sokolov S.Y., Ambrosimov A.K., Meluzov A.А., Mutovkin A.D.


The first results of the multidisciplinary expedition onboard research vessel “Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov” in the Barents Sea in August-September 2018 are given. On 41 stations the hydrophysical sounding was carried out, sampling of the bottom sediments was done using both grab and gravity corer. As a result of geophysical investigations the areas with the signs of modern dangerous natural processes were identified. Four seismic bottom stations were installed in the Pechora Sea.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):885-887
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Complex research in the 44th cruise of RV Akademik Boris Petrov

Krek A.V., Paka V.T., Krek E.V., Ezhova E.E., Dorokhov D.V., Kondrashov A.A., Bubnova E.S., Ponomarenko E.P., Bashirova L.D., Kapustina M.V.


The 44th cruise of the RV Akademik Boris Petrov to the Baltic Sea and the Skagerrak Strait was carried out from 5 to 30 October, 2018. The studies included the study of the structure of water mass, near bottom currents, bottom sediments and biological communities.

Океанология. 2019;59(5):888-890
pages 888-890 views

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