Tractors and Agricultural Machinery

The peer-reviewed journal "Tractors and Agricultural Machinery" publish six times a year (bimonthly).


Leading journal of tractor and agricultural machinery industry, which acquired a reputation of impartial, reliable and informative edition.

Mission of the journal is to keep experts informed of the latest achievements of scientific and engineering thought, to familiarize them with the results of tests of new tractors and agricultural machines, as well as with new trends of development of the agroindustrial complex.

Main themes:

  • agricultural machinery market;
  • environmentally friendly technologies and equipment;
  • new machines and equipment;
  • theory, designing, testing;
  • quality, reliability;
  • agricultural service;
  • foreign agricultural technologies and equipment;
  • economics, organization and technology of production;
  • exhibitions, fairs, conferences.


  • Eco-Vector


Valery Kaminsky, Ph.D., Professor
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5430-4304 


  • Russian Science Citation Index
  • Google Scholar
  • Dimensions
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  • Crossref


  • Open Access
  • No APC
  • СС BY-NC-ND 4.0 International



'Tractors and Agricultural Machinery' journal accepted for indexing in SCOPUS

Posted: 20.07.2023


The 'Tractors and Agricultural Machinery' journal has been successfully evaluated and accepted for indexing in the SCOPUS database.

The Scopus Content Selection & Advisory Board (CSAB) has reviewed the journal and approved it for coverage. The message from CSAB was received on 06.04.2023.

Journal evaluation tracking URL: 

All articles published in the journal from 2023 are subject for indexation.


Eco-Vector is a new publisher of the "Tractors and Agricultural Machinery" journal

Posted: 28.01.2022

The Eco-Vector publishing house became one of the founders and became the publisher of the "Tractors and Agricultural Machinery" journal. The journal was re-registered with Roskomnadzor and continues to be published quarterly in Open Access under the strict scientific guidance of the editor-in-chief and the entire editorial board.

Mass media registration certificate PI No.ФС 77 - 81900 dated 05.10.2021.

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Vol 90, No 3 (2023)

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The “Tractors and Agricultural Machinery” journal is included in Scopus data base

On July 12, 2023, a festal occasion happened, as our journal, “Tractors and Agricultural Machinery”, has been accepted for listing in the Scopus international scientometric database.

Being included in the Scopus is a result of multiyear work of the journal’s staff on increasing the quality of published materials, attracting authors with high citation index, broadening the journal audience. We highly appreciate the trust of authors and readers who mainly define the journal’s success. Including in Scopus gives new opportunities for development of the “Tractors and Agricultural Machinery” as leading peer-reviewed journal of tractor and agricultural machinery industry and R&D.

“Tractors and Agricultural Machinery” is the oldest scientific and technical journal in its field. It was founded in 1930 as print media of Ministry of Tractor and Agricultural Engineering of the USSR. Today it continues to cover relevant issues of development, manufacturing and operation of tractors, combine harvesters and other agricultural machinery – in its 90th volume.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):189-190
pages 189-190 views

Environmentally friendly technologies and equipment

Research of the combustion process in a tractor diesel engine when operating on alcohol and vegetable oil
Likhanov V.A., Lopatin O.P.

BACKGROUND: Tractor diesels are widely used in agriculture, industry and transport due to their high efficiency, reliability, manufacturability and economy. Nevertheless, the ever-increasing tractor fleet is one of the main causes of environmental pollution and the increase in the consumption of petroleum motor fuel. The paper substantiates the use of an alternative fuel, suitable in its physical and chemical characteristics and properties for efficient and environmentally friendly combustion in a tractor diesel, such as ethanol and rapeseed oil.

AIMS: Research of the combustion process in a tractor diesel engine operating on ethanol and rapeseed oil, establishment the dependencies of the influence of tractor diesel operating modes on the combustion process indicators and determination of their numerical characteristics.

METHODS: An experimental sample of a tractor diesel engine was converted for operation on ethanol and rapeseed oil. Ethanol was used as the main fuel and was ignited with a jet of rapeseed oil entering the diesel combustion chamber. Ethanol has a lower calorific value compared to diesel fuel, therefore, there was a need to determine the optimal cyclic supply of the ignition portion of rapeseed oil and to study the indicators of the combustion process.

RESULTS: The results of experimental studies of the effect of the use of ethanol and rapeseed oil as a pilot fuel on the indicators of the combustion process of tractor diesel are presented. The optimal value of the cyclic supply of rapeseed oil has been determined, a decrease in the value of which from the optimal value leads to an increase in exhaust gas temperature, specific effective and total fuel consumption, worsens the combustion process, while an increase of it worsens the environmental performance of a tractor diesel engine, including the smokiness of exhaust gases. The results of scientific research on the determination of optimal installation angles of advance injection of ethanol and rapeseed oil are presented.

CONCLUSIONS: The complete replacement of petroleum diesel fuel with alternative fuels has been achieved without making significant changes to the design of a tractor diesel engine, improving its environmental characteristics while maintaining power indicators at the level of a serial diesel. On the basis of the conducted studies of the operating process of a tractor diesel engine on ethanol and rapeseed oil, the dependencies of the influence of its operating modes on the indicators of the combustion process are established and their numerical characteristics are determined.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):191-200
pages 191-200 views
Evaluation of the influence of fuel pressure pulsation in the Common Rail system on the economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine
Kulmanakov S.P., Tyutikov S.A.

BACKGROUND: At present, all the world’s diesel engine manufacturers have directed their development strategy towards reducing harmful emissions, improving fuel efficiency and increasing power per liter. To achieve this, using only the Common Rail system is not sufficient. It is necessary to apply new additional devices, such as an exhaust gas converter, an exhaust gas recirculation system, the injection of additional fluids together with diesel fuel, as well as to improve existing ones. Increasing the accuracy of fuel delivery for an injector will make it possible to adjust the engine fuel system more precisely, leading to a positive effect on all areas of development of the diesel industry.

In this article, the possibility of increasing fuel efficiency and reducing harmful emissions through exhaust gases of a diesel engine with a decrease in pressure pulsation in the accumulator of the Common Rail system is considered on the example of the D-442-59I-1 (4ChN 13/14) experimental four-cylinder diesel engine with a two-valve gas distribution system manufactured by Altai Motor Plant.

AIMS: Study of the effect of fuel pressure pulsation in the Common Rail fuel system on the economic and environmental performance of a diesel engine.

METHODS: On a non-motorized test rig, the dependence of the fuel delivery of the injector on the pressure in the accumulator was determined. To assess the effect of fuel pressure at the injector inlet on the performance of a diesel internal combustion engine, experimental designs of diesel engines were simulated using the specialized software. Theoretical studies have been carried out to assess the influence of fuel pressure in the fuel system.

RESULTS: Data have been obtained on the effect of fuel pressure fluctuations in the high-pressure line on the injector cycling, harmful emissions and fuel efficiency.

CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the study of the process of fuel supply and combustion in a 4CHN 13/14 diesel engine, it was found that with a pressure fluctuation range of 50 bar in the fuel accumulator, the concentration of wet NOx decreases by 11%. The concentration of solid particles increases to 13.4%, fuel efficiency deteriorates to 0.5% when the operating pressure of the fuel deviates 160 MPa in any direction from the set value.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):201-206
pages 201-206 views

New machines and equipment

Small-sized unit for the restoration of herbage in mountain meadows and pastures
Soldatova I.E., Gulueva L.R.

BACKGROUND: The results of R&D for the laboratory prototype of the unit for grass seeds oversowing on mountain slopes, which can increase labor efficiency and mountain forage lands yield by 20-25%, are presented.

AIMS: The developed laboratory prototype of a block module based on the Feng Shou 180 mini-tractor for surface oversowing of grass seeds, providing with an accelerated increase in the yield of perennial grasses and soil resistance to water and wind erosion.

METHODS: Technical expertise and testing of the unit and technology were carried out in the mountainous zone of the Republic of North Ossetia– Alania (Dargava basin, the base station of the Institute) at an altitude of 1540 meters above sea level. The indicators of the test conditions and functional performance of the unit were determined according to the OST 10.5.1-2000 industry standard. Technical examination of the unit was carried out according to the OST 10.2.1-97. Surface sowing of grass seeds was carried out according to GOST 31345-2017. The subject of research included the technology of grass seeds oversowing, the design of the unit and working bodies: pendular sowing machines, seeding rates and method of sowing.

METHODS: The laboratory prototype of the small-sized unit based on the Feng Shou 180 mini-tractor for surface oversowing of grass seeds has been developed and manufactured. The block module is a hinged structure with a two-row arrangement of containers for grass seeds and with pendular sowing machines. In the design of the small-sized mountain unit, motion across the slope from top to bottom is performed with a shuttle method with rolling of the sown seeds by press wheels. The grass was oversown on a rarefied section of the northern slope with a slope angle of 13–16° on the “Sugsadtanrag” terrain.

CONCLUSIONS: The practical application of the small-sized unit based on the Feng Shou 180 mini-tractor for surface oversowing of grass seeds with their subsequent pressing in areas in highland and piedmont areas ensures detaining of degradation processes of slope areas, accelerated increase in yield, quality and quantity of perennial grasses, improves soil resistance to water and wind erosion.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):207-215
pages 207-215 views
Reducing the range of soil discarding by disc harrows in berry fields
Ozhereliev V.N., Nikitin V.V., Sinyaya N.V.

BACKGROUND: The subject of research is the process of transverse discarding of soil by the outer disk mounted on the front section of a disk harrow in the conditions of inter-row spacing of a berry plantation.

AIMS: Reduction of the range of discarding of a soil layer by the outer disk mounted on the front section of a disk harrow in the conditions of inter-row spacing of a berry plantation.

METHODS: All studies were carried out on a raspberry plantation. Soil moisture was 28%. The disc harrow was aggregated with the T-25A tractor moved at a constant speed of 7.29 km/h, had an attack angle of 21° and a processing depth of 0.1 m. While carrying out field experiments, the location of all soil fragments outside the furrow formed by the outer disk of the rear section was considered. Both the distance to the fragment edge furthest from the furrow wall and the fragment’s slope relative to ч were recorded.

RESULTS: According to the results of field experiments, it was found that the value of the transverse discharge of waterlogged and over-compacted soil in inter-row spacing of berry bushes significantly exceeds the amount of overlap between the front and rear sections of the disc harrow. To exclude the soil discarding into the bush area, the disc harrow was equipped with an additional bump shield oriented at an angle of 53–54° in horizontal plane and at an angle of 50-58° to the direction of movement of the harrow.

CONCLUSIONS: The practical implementation of this technical solution makes it possible to maintain the surface of inter-row spacing at a leveled state throughout their entire service life. At the same time, the disk harrow operates steadily, both with a high degree of impurity of inter-row spacing and excessive soil moisture, as well as provides with grinding and sealing of the annually cut-out raspberry stems.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):217-224
pages 217-224 views

Theory, designing, testing

Field testing of a disk-chisel harrow
Tarasenko B.F., Khav’yarimana E., Drobot V.A., Rudnev S.G.

BACKGROUND: The present state of the global agricultural industry caused by growing consumption of crop and livestock products demands its practical solution that can be achieved, first of all, using high-quality equipment for production and its constant improvement and renovation. Regarding this, using high-quality tillage units which partially or completely improve productiveness and reduce energy consumption during their operation becomes necessary.

AIMS: Process mechanization and improvement of quality of soil cultivating with the developed refined tillage tool.

METHODS: Accomplishment of the given research tasks and ensuring the demaned quality of soil cultivating are done with making changes in working bodies of a disk-chisel harrow at its operation at various velocities on the experimental field by means of adjustment of disk attack angle and measurement of corresponding performance indicators of the unit. Processing of the theoretical data was performed with the Microsoft Excel 2007 software of the Microsoft Office software package.

RESULTS: With the comparison of the data obtained at observing the soil external state before and after disk attack angle adjustment, it may be concluded that the proposed technical equipment gives better soil cultivating with the disk attack angles of 15° and 30°. At this adjustment level it can be observed that soil is cultivated properly with a pretty good overturning.

CONCLUSIONS: With the analysis of the given data, it is found that the tendency of values of productiveness and specific resistance indicators begin to change. The larges fuel consumption is observed at disk module adjustment to 45°.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):225-232
pages 225-232 views
Optimization of design parameters of the vibration protection system of a motor grader seat with quasi-zero stiffness
Korytov M.S., Shcherbakov V.S., Kashapova I.E.

BACKGROUND: Vibrations occurring during operation of land transport-technological machines deteriorate the quality of control, reduce the productivity of the work performed, adversely affect the health of machine operators. In order to reduce the impact of vibrations on the operators, vibration protection systems of the cab and seat are used.

AIMS: For practical application of the developed design of the passive vibration protection system of the motor grader operator’s seat on the basis of a parallelogram mechanism, tensile spring, cable and rollers, it is necessary to develop an algorithm for optimizing the values of design parameters.

METHODS: The mean square value of seat acceleration in a stationary reference frame, determined as a result of simulation of the motor grader motion over a set of stochastic microprofiles of the support surface with various characteristics and velocities, was used as an optimization criterion. Comprehensive simulation mathematical model of a motor grader with cabin vibration protection supports and vibration protection system of a seat was used. All parameters of the optimization algorithm and model were divided into fixed, random and varying ones. The latter include a number of dimensions of the parallelogram mechanism of the seat vibration protection system, the coefficient of viscous friction of the mechanism’s shock absorber, the height of the quasi-zero stiffness zone. The dependence of the criterion on the design parameters of the seat vibration protection mechanism, which has an implicit pattern and is determined by means of a simulation mathematical model, served as the target function. Boundary conditions were imposed on a number of parameters to ensure the operability of the mechanism, manufacturability of its parts as well as ergonomic considerations. Optimization of the values of the varying parameters was performed with the simplex method. At the same time, a part of the parameters unambiguously influencing the value of the target function was preliminarily maximized or minimized within the boundary ranges.

RESULTS: An algorithm for assignment and optimization of design parameters of the vibration protection system of a motor grader seat with quasi-zero stiffness is developed, one of the key features of which is the possibility to adjust the vibration protection system of the seat to the weight of the current operator. Examples of algorithm application are given.

CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm makes it possible to determine the optimal values of design parameters of the seat vibration protection system based on a parallelogram mechanism such as: the dimensions of the parallelogram mechanism, including the attachment points of rollers and cable, the coefficient of tensile spring stiffness, the coefficient of viscous friction of a shock absorber, the parameter of adjusting the mechanism to the weight of the current operator. The key feature of the developed vibration protection system and the optimization algorithm of its design parameters is the possibility of adjustment to the weight of the current operator.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):233-244
pages 233-244 views
Influence of the Mg/MoO3 additive to diesel fuel on heat output
Abalyaev A.Y., Lyukhter A.B.

BACKGROUND: The study results of influence of the Mg/MoO3 composite nanoadditive on the combustion process in the 4Ch10.5/12 diesel engine are given. It is shown that the heat output process in diesel engines divides into two phases: kinetic and diffusive combustion. The review of simulation methods for the heat output process in a diesel engine considering kinetic and diffusive combustion based on the I.I. Vibe’s method is presented. The review of methods of indicator diagram processing helping to obtain parameters of the Vibe’s heat output law for the two-phase combustion for the sake of following simulation and working process analysis is made. The heat output analysis of the 4Ch10.5/12 diesel engine indicator diagram processing using the Mg/MoO3 composite nanoadditive is made.

AIMS: Research of the influence of the Mg/MoO3 composite nanoadditive to fuel on the heat output process in a diesel engine.

METHODS: The 4Ch10.5/12 air-cooled diesel engine with factory-built fuel supply system was tested at the engine test rig. During the research, influence of the Mg/MoO3 composite nanoadditive to fuel on the heat output process was studied.

RESULTS: It is found that using the nanoadditive leads to decreasing hardness of combustion process, reduction of self-ignition time delay, increasing the maximal temperature of working body in a combustion chamber, reduction of amount of heat output at the kinetic combustion. Working body temperature increase and simultaneous maximal cycle pressure decrease testify the growth of pre-expansion degree. Parameters of diffusive combustion remain almost stable no matter of mass fraction of the nanoadditive in diesel fuel.

CONCLUSIONS: It was revealed that nanoparticles of the Mg/MoO3 additive serve as a homogenizer helping to destroy drops of the sprayed fuel and to intensify the evaporation process. Moreover, the nanoparticles serve as self-ignition centers at early stages of the combustion process.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):245-255
pages 245-255 views
Influence of the harvesting method on the processes of moisture accumulation and yield capacity
Chekusov M.S., Kem A.A., Mikhaltsov E.M., Damansky R.V., Shmidt A.N.

BACKGROUND: A feature of the climate of the steppe zones of Western Siberia is the frequent recurrence of droughts. Accumulation and preservation of solid precipitation in the form of snow on field in winter is a relevant task, since this directly affects the accumulation of productive moisture in soil by the time of sowing and, as a result, the formation of the future harvest.

AIMS: To determine the influence of the snow cover level, moisture reserves and productive moisture in the soil on a stubble background, harvested with a thresher for direct combining and a rippler on the yield capacity of spring wheat.

METHODS: The field experiment was carried out in 2021-2022 in the steppe zone of the Omsk region at the Novouralskoye Scientific and Production Enterprise of the Omsk Agrarian Scientific Center. In the autumn of 2021, sections of the field were marked out for measurements: wheat stubble field after the thresher for direct combining, wheat stubble field after the rippler. In March 2022, indicators of the height of the snow cover and moisture reserves in the snow were determined on the marked areas using the VS-43 balance snow gauge. In the spring, wheat was sown with the machine-tractor unit, consisting of the RSM 2400 tractor and the Amazone Condor 15001-C sowing facility. In autumn, the chosen field sections were harvested with the Sampo-250 seed-production harvester.

RESULTS: It was found that after harvesting with the thresher for direct combining with a stubble background of about 15 cm, there is a decrease in the moisture reserve in the one-meter-depth layer by almost 2 times, down to 48.6 mm, by the spring period. The moisture reserve on a high stubble background, after the operation of the rippler, on the contrary, was able to persist, as there were 96.6 mm of productive moisture in the one-meter-depth layer by the time of sowing. The average grain yield on the field section sown after the rippler was 1.16 t/ha. The average grain yield on the field section sown after harvesting with the thresher for direct combining was 1.06 t/ha. Thus, the grain increase was 0.1 t/ha or 9.4%.

CONCLUSIONS: The carried out field experiment indicates that, when harvesting with a rippler, there is a twofold increase in productive moisture by the time of sowing, while the increase in the yield of spring soft wheat grain was 9.4%.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):257-263
pages 257-263 views

Quality, reliability

Results of calculation of changing the pollution concentration and alkalinity of the gas engine oils
Utaev S.A.

BACKGROUND: The issue of ensuring the reliability of internal combustion engines is a relevant composite task, solved in various directions. The important ones among them are the operation conditions, the type of fuel used, control of the motor oils condition, as well as justification of the service life of the latter. When ensuring the operational properties of engine oils of the diesel–based gas engines, the control of the main indicators of the operating oil is relevant.

AIMS: Assessment of changes in the pollution load and alkalinity of the M10G2 oils of the diesel–based gas engines. Application of equations for the theoretical analysis of changes in the pollution concentration and decrease of alkalinity, as well as for building dependencies of oil indicators.

METHODS: During the operation of internal combustion engines, thermochemical processes are actively developing in oils, leading to decrease in their quality due to the activation of additives and the accumulation of transformation products in oils. Mechanical impurities accumulate in the engine oil as a result of dust ingress with the sucked air or through leaks in the crankcase space, as well as due to the formation of insoluble oxidation products and wear of parts of the cylinder-piston group. The base number is a conditional measure of the oil’s ability to neutralize acids formed from the products of fuel combustion and oxidation of the oil base. The alkalinity specified by the presence of alkaline additives is consumed for the neutralization of acids at different rates.

RESULTS: The process of oil aging in internal combustion engines and factors affecting the aging of engine oil are considered. Analytical equations are used to calculate changes in the pollution concentration and changes in the alkalinity of the diesel-based gas engine oil, graphical dependences of oil indicators on the service duration are given.

CONCLUSIONS: The practical value of the study lies in the fact that, using the analytical equations, the value of changes in individual properties of diesel-based gas engine oils is analyzed. Operation of the engine with the oil which base number is below the limit leads to a decrease in engine reliability, accelerated wear of individual parts, lacquer formation and sludging on piston rings and cylinders. It is not allowed to use oils with the base number below 2 mg of KOH/g.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):265-272
pages 265-272 views

Economics, organization and technology of production

Aerosol technology for edge treatment of a field for the destruction of weeds and pests
Kireev I.M., Danilov M.V., Koval Z.M., Zimin P.A.

BACKGROUND: The subject of the study is the technological process of spraying weeds and pests in the edge area of the field with polydisperse drops from an air-dispersed system created by a fan with a nozzle and slotted liquid sprayers.

AIMS: Justification of the technological process of spraying weeds and pests during the edge treatment of a field with a polydisperse aerosol.

METHODS: There was a device for a mounted boom sprayer of plants used for edge treatment of a field by the main method of spraying weeds and pests with the required size and number of drops from an air-dispersed jet created by an axial fan with a hydraulic drive and a nozzle equipped with slotted sprayers of liquid located along its generatrix for supplying spray cones into the initial section of the jet. Based on the developed method, the results of tinted liquid spraying subject cards fixed in a certain position in compliance with the GOST 34630 on tablets and located perpendicular to the motion direction of the sprayer on soil and hills.

RESEARCH NOVELTY: The aerosol technology for edge treatment of a field for the destruction of weeds and pests was proposed for the first time.

RESULTS: Using eight LU-015. AD-015 (color code - green) slotted sprayers on the nozzle generatrix of the device, the number of drops deposited per 1 cm2 on the surface at a distance from the nozzle up to 15 m satisfies the agrotechnical requirements for the use of herbicides, as well as insecticides and fungicides. Throughout the height of the cards at a distance of 10 m from the nozzle, the number of drops per 1 cm2 decreases, and especially with an increase in the height of their location. Large drops of the polydisperse system settle on the soil earlier to kill weeds, while small ones move to the forest belt to kill pests at the base.

CONCLUSIONS: With theoretical calculations and experimentally, the aerosol technology of combined edge treatment of a field and field-protective plantings with the environmentally friendly cold aerosol using slotted liquid sprayers was justificated. The performance of rational technology is ensured by: the technical unit motion velocity of 3 km/h, the spraying width of 10 m, the working fluid pressure of 4 bar, the productivity of 3 ha/h, the working solution flow rate of 108.8 l/ha.

Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):273-284
pages 273-284 views
Economical efficiency of using a diesel-powered electric plant combined with an air heat pump
Frolov M.Y., Shatalova I.I., Shkarin K.V., Sokolov D.A.

BACKGROUND: In settlements located in areas that do not have centralized electric and gas supply, the problems of energy supply are solved using low-power power plants based on heat engines. One of the main drawbacks of such units is the issue of fuel economy, given the cost of its delivery. In this paper, one of the ways to increase the efficiency of energy supply during the heating season in a cold climate is considered.

AIMS: Increasing the economical efficiency of a diesel-powered electric plant with an air heat pump in conditions of low ambient teperature.

METHODS: Simulation of operation conditions was performed in the MathCad software using the experimental data obtained at the department.

RESULTS: Heating of outside air before entering the evaporator of the heat pump makes it possible to significantly increase the conversion coefficient and thus expand the boundaries of application of air-source heat pumps in cold climates.


  1. The combined operation of the diesel power plant with the air heat pump makes it possible to provide a single settlement with electricity as well as to supply it with thermal energy for the needs of heating and hot water supply.
  2. With the diesel engine efficiency equal to 37%, the unit efficiency with the heat pump increases to 57% at an ambient temperature of 15°C (288 K).
  3. The use of air heating at the inlet to the heat pump evaporator increases the fuel use rate by 12–14% due to the heat of engine and oil cooling.
Tractors and Agricultural Machinery. 2023;90(3):285-291
pages 285-291 views

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