Vol 1, No 1 (2020)


Anthropological interpretation of non-classical art

Krivtsun O.A.


The logic of the modern era prepared the way for the birth of “non-classical” art as it was a part of the growing distrust of rationalism. Skepticism of the classics came as a consequence of the crisis of classical rationalism that erupted in European culture starting in the 1830’s. The new art focused on ways of expression that cast doubt on the absolute norms of classical art. In painting, this was manifested in the prevalence of pictoriality (color-light relations) over plasticity (the primacy of the line, drawing), the dynamic over the static, atectonics over tectonics, and a shift from the central axis of the picture in favor of so-called “landscape vision,” in which the painting has several centers at once. Artists of the post-classical age (including the present) understand that life presents a completely different picture of the world and their works reflect a contradictory era, expressed by colors, lines, complex composition, deformed space, and displacement of the painting’s fixed center. The language of painting dramatically changed. The tried and tested elements of classical art were unsuitable for depicting the dramatic and tragic collisions of modern times. In the sharp, painful, depressing images of Egon Schiele, Rene Magritte, Francis Bacon, Anselm Kiefer, and Jean-Michel Basquiat, modern philosophical art captures the conditions of unhealthy eroticism, loneliness, acute anxiety-an existential impasse, almost an anthropological disaster. Nevertheless, all of the creators listed have a powerful style. The works of these twentieth-century artists do not fit into any expected, familiar format but are full of hidden vitality. A number of examples of non-classical art demonstrate that in their own unique ways these painters are not afraid to confront the problem of good and evil.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):13-29
pages 13-29 views

The theological dominant in I. Ivazovsky’s work

Skorobogacheva E.A.


Researchers have not given due attention to the theological component of I. Aivazovsky’s oeuvre. In this article, the author describes it as the semantic dominant of the artist’s entire work. To prove this hypothesis, she cites both central and little-known works as well as extensive archival materials. Aivazovsky was able to reach the heights of professional achievement because his individual language combines a synthesis of artistic traditions and great spiritual integrity, common to the works of the best Russian painters of the second half of the 19th - early 20th centuries.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):30-36
pages 30-36 views

The problem of genre in mozart (on “Cosi fan tutte”)

Kuklinskaya M.Y.


This paper examines opera drama in Mozart’s oeuvre. The individuality of Mozart’s style; the “poly-generic” quality of his works for the stage; and the presence of devices to portray characters common to different types of opera (buffa, singspiel); make it possible to talk about the composer creating a special genre of opera. This paper proposes to define this as “Mozartian drama.” It considers the genre of dramma giocoso (playful drama) to be its dramaturgical basis. The paper analyses the musical and dramatic material of the opera “Cosi fan tutte,” considering its composition and features of its musical language, and comes to a conclusion about the composer’s new understanding of its genre. In the course of the research, the author notes that Mozart transformed traditional operatic features. He establishes a special type of relationship between the performative and lyrical-psychological spheres of the operatic text and thereby generates a number of dramatic and compositional innovations. Comparing “Cosi fan tutte” to Mozart’s stage works of the 80-90s, the article also outlines the formation of the basic principles of “Mozartian drama.”
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):37-48
pages 37-48 views

The hidden languages of russian satire and humour

Golubkov S.A.


The article deals with various ways to convey covert meanings in a comic text, examining how satirists and humorists make use of hidden forms of communication with the reader. The writer, as an experienced diagnostician and forecaster, is able to open up a huge expanse of that which is not obvious in real life. In this regard, the art of Anton Chekhov is extremely indicative. This article considers various forms of hidden semantics in Soviet-era writing, from the well-known irony and allegory to more elusive elements of comic technique, such as associative signals, references to suggestive quotations, play with readers’ expectations, figures of “seeming”, literary mystification, the use of detail, of strange language, emphasis on characters’ gestures, errors of intonation, and comically colored pauses. The article demonstrates the ways in which satirists and humorists utilized speech behavior of as a form of active opposition to the official language of Soviet ideological cliches and dead verbal formulas. The presence of hidden semantic layers in the work requires that the reader perform complex tasks of text reception such as decoding and creatively deciphering hidden messages in the work. These techniques have popularly been described as “the cryptography of literature.” The literary text becomes a kind of figurative and verbal secret writing, understandable only to initiates. Analysts of such texts diligently engage in finding accurate and adequate semantic keys to them
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):51-58
pages 51-58 views

Verbal art in the contextof art synthesis (on the material of intermedial texts with singular authority)

Gavrikov V.A.


The article is devoted to the current state of interdisciplinary research in the field of intermediate (“synthetic”) arts, in which one of the expressive linkages is the artistic word. The author focuses on the arts in which one person creates all of the “subtexts” (subsystems) of the artistic intermedia text. Such instances occur in literature and song lyrics. The song combines word, music and “speech theater” of the performer, but research into the synthesis of these three “subtexts” is rare. Most researchers do not study phonograms (video recording), but rather the interlinear (paper) text. Much meaning is lost due to this methodological approach. The author of the article demonstrates the multidimensionality of song and poetic texts using examples from Vladimir Vysotsky and Alexander Bashlachev. The songs by these authors are semantically rich and markedly performative, where part of the meaning derives from articulation and voice modulation. Articulation creates at least three semantic effects that complement the verbal text. These are: the creation of a system of speech characters; the materialization of the poetic text (for example - sound imitation); and plot correction. Recipients will miss a number of meanings important for understanding the song if they sight-read the song and do not listen to the phonogram. The author of the article believes that for the study of artistic objects of mixed semiosis it is necessary to create a special branch of knowledge (intermediology).
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):61-73
pages 61-73 views

On the origins of socioterminology: socio-cultural contexts of a term’s functioning

Alekseeva L.M., Mishlanova S.L.


This article considers one of the modern branches of terminology studies - socioterminology. The status of socioterminology as an independent scholarly trend is discussed. The article describes the heuristic potential of socioterminology, which makes it possible to consider terminological variation as a result of the sociocognitive differentiation of discourse and, consequently, as an inherent property of all terminology. An integrative metamodel of terminological variation is proposed, with whose help the life cycle of a term may be reconstructed as a necessary condition for the development, transfer and management of knowledge.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):77-86
pages 77-86 views

Titles in the english language press as a factor of manipulative linguocultural influencein information wars

Vokhrysheva E.V.


The article examines the notion of “information war” and the possibilities of the manipulative effect of titles in the English language press on readers’ perceptions. Information war is a combination of communicative practices meant to influence people’s consciousness by specific use of linguistic units in order to acquire information supremacy for strategic purposes. Titles in the press produce an initial impact on readers thanks to visual perception and eye-catching features. Manipulative linguocultural influence is often realized in titles through using linguistic units with negative connotations, particular phraseological units and their transformations, as well as by employing various stylistic practices and rhetorical figures. The most widely used means are metaphors, hyperboles, puns and rhetorical questions. The pragmatic effects include: a shift in the processing of reality; shaping and developing recipients’ emotional, illogical attitude toward facts and events; transformation of their linguocultural picture of the world in an ideologically targeted direction; and constructing a new social reality and changing public opinion on the basis of distorted information.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):87-97
pages 87-97 views

The methodology of the disciplines that constitute the system of documentation and communication

Vokhrysheva M.G.


The scientific disciplines of Librarianship, Bibliography and Bibliology, taken together as a single documentation-communicative complex, has emerged as an object of study. This new object demands a new methodology which, alongside both general and specific scientific methods, also requires complex ones that function to integrate knowledge. These methods are developed both within the documentation-communicative complex, on the basis of a synthesis of particular research practices, as well as on the basis of general, universal scientific methods, and reveal a tendency toward integration of the three above-mentioned disciplines The article shows the advantages of this interdisciplinary approach which cuts across the borders of individual scientific approaches and brings knowledge from the various disciplines to bear on the larger problem of the documentation-communicative complex.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):101-113
pages 101-113 views

Problems of development of the art of illustrating children’s books (late 18th-early 20th century)

Skorobogacheva E.A., Soldatova A.V.


In this article, problems of development of the art of illustrating children’s books are considered for the first time in a chronological framework, from the end of the 18th - early 20th century. The main milestones of its formation--the unique “handwriting” of individual authors and associations, and vectors of aesthetic influence that allow us to find a complex synthesis of traditions in graphic images--are outlined. The article uses archival materials and studies little-known examples of book graphics. A children’s book may rightfully be considered one of the foundations of a child’s spiritual education. The illustrations are no less important than the text - they contribute to a deeper perception and awareness of the book’s material and introduce young readers to the world of fine art. However, understanding the importance of illustrations in a book for children’s reading did not come immediately to Russian artists, writers and publishers, and only developed at the end of the 19th century, when views of child psychology and pedagogy changed. A turning point for Russian culture, the turn of the 19th-20th centuries was also a time for changes in children’s book design. Many masters, often already known for their paintings and graphic art, now tried their hand in this area. Children’s book illustration has a special artistic language, different from images for books designed for an adult audience. The appearance of “picture books,” where illustrations predominate over the text, reflects this difference. The authors note that at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, Russian design of children’s books achieved a high professional level. Artists made use of older traditions of book illustration starting from the 17th century and created striking examples of domestic graphic art.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):114-121
pages 114-121 views

The socio-philosophical foundations for a typology of civilizations

Tyugashev E.A.


The purpose of this article is to identify socio-philosophical typologies of civilizations and identify their conceptual and disciplinary foundations. In social philosophy, there is a widespread typology of civilizations based on the dominance of particular elements of spiritual life. This is the division of civilizations into traditional ones, in which religion dominates, and technogenic (“liberal”) civilizations, where science dominates. The author takes issue with such classifying of civilizations on a spiritual basis. As an alternative, he proposes the possibility of determining types of civilizational development by considering the modes of production of material life. These are divided into the mode of production of material goods and the mode of the immediate production of human life. This makes it possible to distinguish two kinds of social development: a) the anthropocentric - with the dominant mode of human production; and b) the technocentric - dominated by the production of material goods. Taking into account the established terminological tradition, we can also talk about anthropogenic and technogenic types of civilizational development. Existing interpretations of the industrial civilization of the West as based on an ancient mode of production, and the traditional civilizations of the East as based on an Asiatic mode of production may also be reassessed through the lens of these modes of production of material life.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):125-132
pages 125-132 views

M. Epshteyn - «chelovek slovotvoryashchiy» 16 voprosov Mikhailu Epshteynu o kul'ture, o vremeni i o sebe

Ionesov V.I.


Предисловие к интервью с философом, филологом, культурологом, заслуженным профессором теории культуры и русской литературы университета Эмори (Атланта, США) Михаилом Эпштейном
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):135-147
pages 135-147 views

Obraz - kontsept - filosofiya - iskusstvo(Retsenziya na izdanie: Loginova M.V. Sovremennaya filosofiya iskusstva: kontseptosfera: ucheb. posobie. Saransk: Izd-vo Mordov. un-ta, 2020. 220 s.)

Slozhenikina Y.V.


Рецензия на издание: Логинова М.В. Современная философия искусства: концептосфера: учеб. пособие. Саранск: Изд-во Мордов. ун-та, 2020. 220 с.
Sphere of culture. 2020;1(1):151-152
pages 151-152 views

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