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Vol 12, No 2 (2012)

Articles
VIRAL LIVER DISEASE FROM BOTKINS DISEASES TO MODERN INFECTION HEPATOLOGY
Lobzin Y.V., Zhdanov K.V.
Abstract
In the article presents a historical overview of the main stages of the thinking about viral liver damage from the late XIX century to the present. Described the stages of evolution of views on the etiology, pathogenesis, treatment of acute and chronic viral hepatitis. Current state of problem and prospects opening before doctors and researchers presented in detail.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):7-18
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ATHEROSCLEROSIS, DIABETES MELLITUS AND AUTONOMOUS INNERVATION OF ORGANS OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
Dudanov I.P., Pigarevsky P.V., Korgevsky D.E., Maltseva S.V., Chumasov E.I.
Abstract
In the survey are represented the data about the influence of diabetes mellitus on the development of atherosclerosis and its complications. It is revealed the special features of the damage of the vegetative innervation of the cloths of heart and main arteries with these processes. It is shown, that with atherosclerosis complicated by diabetes in the main arteries is observed the simultaneous formation both of the classical atherosclerotic plaques and fibrous arteroisclotic plaques with calcinosis and thrombosis near the wall. It is established that in the patients with diabetes mellitus there is a special pathogenetic mechanism, which leads to strengthening of the arterial disfunction, observed with the development of atherosclerotic process. The analysis of literature showed that during the combination of these two disease are observed the primary damage of extramurals sympathetic ganglia. Are cited the data about topography and density of the distribution of synaptic terminal interlacements in different organs of cardiovascular system. The analysis of represented data attests to the fact that the progressive pattern of the flow of the atherosclerotic process against the background of diabetes mellitus bears the system character, caused by the disturbance of lipid exchange, by formation in the vessel wall of immunoinflammatory process, and it is accompanied by changes from the side of autonomous nervous system.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):19-27
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NUTRITION AND INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
Nazarenko L.I., Baranovsky A.U.
Abstract
The lecture describes the role of nutritional imbalance in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In particular, the impotence of excessive intake of simple carbohydrates, lack of fresh fruit and vegetables, food fibers, ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, food intolerances, obesity are analysed. The gouls of clinical nutrition have been outlined in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, as well as the factors that should be considered in developing the diets. Influence of therapeutic diets on inflammation, impairment of intestinal motility, and intestinal microbial imbalance has been demonstrated. Role of nutrition both enteral and parenteral, has been described in the therapy of protein-energy malnutrition, a common finding in inflammatory bowel disease (especially Crohn’s disease). Further research in patient’s genotype for developing tailor-made diets is required.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):28-34
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THE PROBLEM OF CHRONIC PANCREATITIS FROM POINTS OF VIEW THERAPEUTIST AND SURGEON
Grinevich V.B., Maystrenko N.A., Pryadko A.S., Romashchenko P.N., Shcherbina N.N.
Abstract
There were analysed results of diagnosis and treatment of 415 chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients. Indications for surgical treatment were set for 298 (71,8%) patients, non-surgical treatment - for 117 (28,2%), the patients were subdivided in accordance with the international Marseilles-Rome classification of CP (1988) into three forms: calcifying, obstructive, inflammatory. The use of modern methods in the diagnosis and treatment of CP patients allowed to modify the classification and distinguish subgroups for each form of the disease. It is established that the use of modern minimally invasive technologies in the diagnosis and treatment of CP patients expands opportunities of the delivery of medical care at high level, with the minimum of complications, with high quality of life. In the non-surgical treatment along with the use of traditional approaches it is reasonable obligatorily to take into account metabolic alterations with the purpose of their correction, first of all through restoration of adequate functioning of intestinal microbial-tissue complex. The patients with CP complications should be under surgical treatment with the use of the whole range of operational resources, with a complete substantiation of intervention type when the non-surgical therapy resources are exhausted or the ineffectiveness of non-surgical therapy because of complications development is evident. There is shown the necessity of recognition of wider clinical view of CP problem for substantiation of adequate individualized treatment policy.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):35-55
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DIAGNOSTICS AND MECHANISMS OF THE DAMAGE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HIV-INFECTION
Belyakov N.A., Trofimova T.N., Rassokhin V.V.
Abstract
The article describes basic mechanisms of central nervous system damage as well as HIV transmission through physiological barriers, its interaction with brain cells containing receptors CD4 and co-receptors ССR-5 and CXCR 4. A description has been given to participation of various chemical ingredients(proinflammatory cytokines, metabolites, immune complexes, HIV toxic proteins and etc.) in brain damage, development of clinical presentations of neurologic and cognitive disorders from light HIV associated neurocognitive disorders to dementia and severe neurologic syndromes, whose formation takes up to several years. It has been shown that the early stages of infection already reveal considerable glucose metabolism disorders, changes in EEG with evoked potentials, which may become an additional marker of HIV infection. Along with the description of radiological and clinical methods of examination, differences in HIV quantity and genetics have been shown as related to blood and cerebrospinal fluid with various resistances to medicines. Well-timed and adequate anti - retroviral therapy accompanied with the choice of medicines with high degree of penetration through blood-brain barrier can in most cases promote prevention, delay and reduction of brain damage intensity as part of combined therapy of HIV infected patients.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):56-67
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NEUROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS OF THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS REALIZING THE REINFORCING EFFECTS OF SELF-STIMULATION OF THE LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS
Shabanov P.D., Lebedev A.A.
Abstract
The purpose of the investigation was to clear the significance of GABA, dopamine and corticoliberin (CRF) systems of the nucleus accumbens for the reinforcing effects of a number of psychotropic drugs (opiates, opioids, psychostimulants) on self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus in rats. The Wistar male rats were implanted bipolar electrodes in the lateral hypothalamus to study self-stimulation reaction in the Skinner box. Simultaneously, the microcannules were implanted into the nucleus accumbens to inject the drugs studied (1 |!g in 1 |ll in volume for each injection). Some drugs, lidocain, a blocker of sodium influx ionic currents, antagonists of GABAa receptors bicuculline, D 1 dopamine receptors SCH23390, D 2 dopamine receptors sulpiride and CRF receptors astessin, which were administered intrastructurally into the nucleus accumbens, were used for pharmacological analysis. Bicuculline > astressin > sulpiride > SCH23390 (the drugs are located in the range of descending inhibition activity), administered into the nucleus accumbens, inhibited, but lidocain, a blocker of sodium influx ionic currents, enhanced self-stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus. The reinforcing properties of all psychoactive drugs (amphetamine, fentanyl, sodium ethaminal and leu-enkephaline) were changed on the background of their action. After administration of sulpiride amphetamine had no effect, and after bicuculline, lidocaine and SCH23390 the amphetamine effect, clear reproducible from the lateral hypothalamus, was decreased. Ch the other hand, both bicuculline and sulpiride did not pre- vent of psychoactivating effect of opioid analgetic fentanyl. In all other cases the positive effect of fentanyl inverted into negative one (lidocain, SCH23390, astressin). The blockade of dopamine receptors (SCH23390, sulpiride) and CRF receptors (CRF) did not change sodium ethaminal effect whereas bicuculline and lidocaine declined them. None blocker instead of astressin changed the inhibitory effects of leu-enkephaline on hypothalamic self-stimulation significantly. In the latter case, astressin strengthened the negative action of leuenkephaline on self-stimulation. It is concluded that the nucleus accumbens controls the hypothalamic self-stimulation via GABA- and CRF-ergic mechanisms preferably, which are able to limit the positive effects of narcogenic drugs.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):68-76
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PREGNANT ETHANOL EFFECT ON THE MONOAMINERGIC SYSTEMS MATURE IN DEVELOPING RAT BRAIN
Bychkov E.R., Lebedev A.A., Airapetov M.I., Roik R.O., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
The purpose of the paper was the simultaneous study of the main neurotransmitter of monoaminergic system of the brain, their metabolites, activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and the state of different sybtypes of dopamine (DA) receptors (D 1, D 2L, D 2S, D 4 и D 5) in the developing brain of offspring from mothers alcoholized in gestation and feeding periods. Alcoholization of rats during gestation period decreased activity of all monoaminergic systems studied, that performed with reduction of noradrenaline and DA level in alcoholized fetus as well as of mPNA of COMT, an enzyme of catecholamine metabolism, in the structures of the forebrain on 17 th day but not on 13 th day of prenatal development. In parallel experiments, the increase of the contents of both long and short splice variants of D 2 DA receptor was registered. In postnatal period (4-10-17 days), the further decrease of the DA system activity was observed, in particular, reduction of DOPAC level and DOPAC/DA ratio in rat pups, mothers of which intake alcohol in the gestation period with withdrawal it after birth of offspring. The serotonin system activity was also reduced in alcoholized pups in the postnatal period and was registered in the early stages (on 4th day of life). Therefore, the serotonin system activity is changing on early stages of development in the most degree (4 th day), whereas the inhibition of the DA system activity is registered on the late stages (10 th day of life).
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):77-83
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EFFECT OF DINITROSYL IRON COMPLEX WITH GLUTATHIONE ON HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK FOLLOWED BY SALINE TREATMENT
Selivanov E.A., Remizova M.I., Gerbout K.A., Burgova E.N., Vanin A.F.
Abstract
It has been found that dinitrosyl iron complex with glutathione (DNIC-GS) injected into the blood flow of rats at dose of 0,05 moles/kg prior to hemorrhage significantly improve efficiency of infusion therapy of hemorrhagic shock. The stroke volume, cardiac output and left ventricular work increased to a level exceeding control values 1,5-fold. Enhanced myocardial contractile activity leads to a situation where mean arterial pressure does not decrease further despite the significant decrease of total peripheral resistance. The decrease of total peripheral resistance under vasodilatating effects of DNIC-GS used as nitric oxide donor improves microcirculation in experimental rats judging from increased rates of blood flow and low degree of erythrocyte aggregation. Pretreatment of rats with the DNIC-GS increases survival (by 21%) under conditions of hemorrhagic shock. It is suggested that beneficial effects of complexes on circulation under conditions of hemorrhagic shock are determined by its antioxidant activity.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):84-89
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GENOME POLYMORPHISM STREPTOCOCCUS DYSGALACTIAE SUBSPECIES EQUISIMILIS
Uliasov Y.Y., Dmitriev A.V.
Abstract
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis is the most wide-spread representative of group G streptococci and an essential aetiologic agent of most human deseases. Despite of the published genome-wide sequence of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, there are almost no data on the genetic heterogeneity of this subspecies provided in the present-day literature. This document provides for the comparative analysis of a vast collection of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains isolated in various geographic regions. Virulence genes scpG, lmb, nga, speG and ska have been analyzed for presence. High-grade heterogeneity of scpG gene has been detected. Some strains have been subjected to emm-genotyping. Strains have been analyzed through the pulsed-field electrophoresis. As a result, the significant genome polymorphism of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was found out.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):90-96
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MOLECULAR AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC OF HIV INFECTION IN SAINT-PETERSBURG
Dement’yeva N.Y., Sizova N.V., Lisitsyna Z.N., Belyakov N.A.
Abstract
The amount of the HIV positive in Saint-Petersburg has reached 50 thousands in 2012. The intensive migration activity of the population may cause the emergence and spread of various genetic variants of the virus over the territory. These changes have been promoted by the Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy that involves over 6,5 thousands of people. The article gives the results of analysis of HIV subtypes and drug-resistant forms circulating among the HIV-infected residents of the city.
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):97-104
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ANATOLII MIKhAILOVICh GRANOV K 80-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):105-107
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NIKOLAY SERGEEVICh SAPRONOV K 75-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):108-109
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ANATOLIY BORISOVICh ZhEBRUN K 70-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):110-111
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YuRIY ALEKSANDROVICh ShchERBUK K 60-LETIYu SO DNYa ROZhDENIYa
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):112-114
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PRAVILA OFORMLENIYa STATEY
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2012;12(2):116-116
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