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Vol 10, No 4 (2010)


The actual aspects of the venous return regulation

Sanioylenko A.V., Yourov A.Y., Evlakhov V.I., Poyassov I.Z.


The review have represented the results investigations, which had been directed by academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Science B.l. Tkachenko, concerning actual and disputable aspects of the one of the main systemic hemodynamic parameter venous return. The peculiarities of the relations between venous return and cardiac output, venous return and arterial pressure, venous return and central venous pressure, venous return and total peripheral resistance are discussed following action on the systemic circulation of the different stimuli such as pressor and depressor vasoactive drugs, extreme factors (hypoxia, hypothermia, postural changes). The problems of the relation of the negative intrathoracic pressure and venous return and dynamic relations of the superior and inferior vena cava flows in the formation of the venous return are also discussed. The authors have proposed the «two-wave» conception of the pressor reaction formation in the systemic circulation.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):7-20
pages 7-20 views

Mechanisms of realization of the pathogenic potential of stress

Ovsiannikov V.I.


On the basis of studies conducted in the Department of Physiology of visceral systems in the past 45 years, provided rationale for the concept of realization of the pathogenic potential of stress. In accordance with this, prevention of socially significant types of pathologies as hypertension and ulcerative lesions of the gastrointestinal tract is possible on the basis of correction of functional disorders in cardiovascular and digestive systems, caused by stress. Summarized the results of study of adrenergic influences on the smooth muscle of arterial and venous vessels and the gastro-intestinal tract, of the coordination of stimulatory and inhibitory mechanisms of the enteric nervous system during stress. Described possible mechanisms of realization of the pathogenic potential of stress: gastroduodenal motor discoordination, total increase of the colon tone in the poststress period and adrenergic constriction of venous sphincters in the combination with hightend pressure in organ veins.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):21-29
pages 21-29 views

Interleukin-1 and cognitive brain functions

Zubareva O.E., Klimenko V.M.


The cytokines of lnterleukin-1 family (IL-1α and β, IL-1 r.a., IL-18) play a key role in processes of neuroimmune interactions. Well known has been their role in regulation of motivational state and homeostatic functions (body temperature, HPA axis, and so on), in induction of prodromal syndrome's manifestations, in pathogenesis of a number of neural diseases. Present revue is dedicated to the aspects of neurobiology of IL-1 family investigated least of all their involvement into regulation of cognitive functions. Published data and results of our own studies proved the influence of IL-1α and β as well as IL-18 to education and memory processes, and revealed different character of the effects on individuals at early and maturate ages.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):30-44
pages 30-44 views

Obesity and atherosclerosis: role of adipokines

Denisenko A.D.


This review summarizes the experimental and clinical data on the role of adipokines in atherogenesis. Excess body fat accompanies by insulin resistance, dislipoproteinemias and hypertension, promoting atherosclerosis lesions formation. Elevation plasma level of proinflammatory adipokines in obesity provide the conditions for their direct effect on arterial wall cells, such as endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and macrophages. In general, influence these adipokines leads to endothelial dysfunction and promotion of atherosclerosis lesions formation.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):45-49
pages 45-49 views

Apolipoprotein A-I in the human monocyte/macrophage cell lines: the expression and the putative functions

Orlov S.V., Mogilenko D.A., Perevozchikov A.P.


This review outlines the modern concepts concerning functions of high density lipoproteins and their major protein component apolipoprotein А-I (ApoA-l) in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. The discussion of anti-inflammatory ApoA-l activity as well as the regulation of apoA-l gene expression by proinflammatory cytokine TNFa is underlined. There are original data about the expression of apoA-l gene in human monocyte-macrophage lineages. Stimulation of human monocytes and macrophages by TNFa leads to an activation of apoA-l expression in those cells in contrast to the effect of TNFa on human hepatocytes and enterocytes, where there is a downregulation of apoA-l expression. The putative functions of ApoA-l synthesized by macrophages are discussed, in particular the stabilization effect of ApoA-l on ABCA1 transporter which possesses the antiatherogenic properties.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):50-62
pages 50-62 views

Ethiology and pathogenesis of amyloidoses: the molecular and genetic basis

Schavlovsky M.M.


I he modern concepts of molecular and genetic basis of amyloidoses are considered in the brief review. The problems of classification, the common principles of amyloid formation, the mechanisms of fibrillogenesis and causes of tissue degeneration are discussed. The examples of certain amyloidoses are presented. The great attention is devoted to the hereditary forms of these diseases. The modern approach to diagnostics and therapy of different amyloidoses are discussed.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):63-81
pages 63-81 views

Poorly studied mechanisms of genetic information transmission and hereditary pathology

Vasilyev V.B., Patkin E.L.


Nucleotide sequence in nuclear DNA is not the only source of information for phenotype formation. The traits transmitted with mitochondrial DNA along the maternal lineage and epigenetic factors noticeably affect the diversity of organisms. It is known that close relatives may have varying state of energy metabolism in cells of different tissues, up to inherited alterations, such variations resulting largely from the state of inherited mitochondrial DNA. Activity of nuclear genes can vary wit//n broad limits affected by epigenetic mechanisms of regulation, such as X-chromosome inactivation, but also locating satellite DNAs (having different size and copy number) in the nuclear genome regions changing their functions in response to the changes of their structure.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):82-94
pages 82-94 views

Endothelial cell as a target of bacteria and their components

Freidlin I.S., Starikova E.A.


This review highlights recent advances in the field of endothelial cells function during infection and inflammation. The primary function of endothelial cells during infection is to recognize pathogens and inflammatory stimuli from phagocytes. Endothelial cells exposed to pathogens induce an inflammatory response through different receptors including TLRs. TLRs expression has been demonstrated on various endothelial cells and significantly increases under inflammatory conditions. TLRs use different signaling pathways to trigger signals resulting in proinflammatory genes expression. Activated endothelial cells take part in the innate immune response with production of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesive molecules. T//s review is Reused on the role of activated endothelial cells in innate and adaptive immunity, inflammation, destruction of cells and angiogenesis. Much recent work shows that vascular inflammatory responses can be limited by anti-inflammatory mechanisms. It seems logical to look at endothelial cells as therapeutic targets when aiming at reestablis//ng normal immunity and resolve inflammation.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):95-106
pages 95-106 views

Pentraxins in the reactions of innate and aquired immunity, matrix organization, and female fertility

Nazarov P.G.


A review of literature data and own investigations of the author and //s staff devoted to pentraxin superfamily. The major members of the superfamily are characterized: classic short pentraxins C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component, long pentraxins PTX3 and PTX4, a group of neuronal pentraxins. We consider the phylogeny of pentraxins, genetic coding, cytokine regulationof synthesis, ligands, biological properties, role in protection against infectious, inflammatory reaction, the organization of the extracellular matrix, fertility.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):107-124
pages 107-124 views

Toxicology of carbon nanostructures

Piotrovsky L.B., Dumpis M.A., Litasova E.V., Safonova A.F., Selina E.N., Bulion V.V., Rodionova O.M., Sapronov N.S.


Rapid advances in nanotechnology will inevitably raises as one of the most important problems the problem of studying the effect on humans and the environment as the production itself and its products. This problem has long been solved for the «ordinary» substances, but for nanoparticles these recommendations have not yet exist, it is not even a single approach to solving this problem. So far today studies of the dangers of nanotech products are on a «case on the case". A special place among other nanoparticles of carbon nanostructures occupy nanostructures as a whole, and fullerenes, in particular. In earlier studies it was showed that the biological effects of fullerenes depend on the form of administration, the degree of aggregation of its molecules. Therefore we can not talk about the toxicity of the fullerene as a substance, it is necessary to study its various water-soluble forms. Studies on the effects of complex C60/PVP in vivo in mice and rats with intraperitoneal introduction showed the full lack of any toxic effects of the fullerene itself. Moreover, there was even //s protective action that may be associated with antioxidant properties of the fullerene C60.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):125-134
pages 125-134 views

Algorithm of brain reactions to destabilizing antigenic and non-antigenic factors and problem of neuro-immune interactions

Korneva E.A., Novikova N.S., Perekrest S.V., Shainidze K.Z., Abramova T.V., Gavrilov Y.V.


In present work the analysis of current literature and data on molecular and cell mechanisms of brain reactions to different destabilizing factors is given. The characteristics of hypothalamic cell and structure ensembles, w//ch activation depends on stimulus modality (movement restriction, pain, electro-magnetic irradiation, injection of short peptides and different antigens) is determined. Applying of complex analysis of c-Fos-positive cell quantity, their size and optical density allowed to reveal activation level of hypothalamic structures, neurons types and intensity of their reaction to concrete stimuli. The dependence of algorithm of hypothalamic structure activation from the nature of injected antigen, its immunogenity and concentration. The modulating effects of short peptides vilon and epitalon as well as electromagnetic irradiation by waves of extremely //gh frequency on hypothalamic cell activation, altered by destabilizing factors, is shown. The discreteness of reactions of hypothalamic orexin neurons to antigen and non-antigen stimuli was revealed that demonstrate their participation in mechanisms of realization of brain reactions to these signals. The complex applying of molecular-biological and morphometric methods allowed to demonstrate the difference between algorithms of brain reactions characteristic for answer to definite stimuli including antigen.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):135-148
pages 135-148 views

Modem concept of antimicrobial peptides as molecular factors of the immunity

Kokryakov V.N., Aleshina G.M., Shamova O.V., Orlov D.S., Andreeva Y.V.


This review outlines the modern concept of antimicrobial peptides as molecular immunity factors of human and animals. On the basis of own and literature data the conception that antimicrobial peptides of phagocytes and epithelia (defensins, cathelicidins etc.) are selected in the evolution as the molecules responsible for the inactivation of bacteria and enveloped viruses is proving. In addition, antimicrobial peptides are also involved in the regulation of defense-adaptive reactions of the organism during infection, stress and exposure to adverse environmental factors both directly through chemotactic, opsonization activities and the ability of mast cells degranulation and indirectly, manifesting antiendotoxin, corticostatic and immunoprotective activities.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):149-160
pages 149-160 views

Disturbances in interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine system under stress, chronic fatigue syndrome and the means for their correction

Rybakina E.G., Shanin S.N., Fomicheva E.E., Kozinets I.A., Filatenkova T.A., Dmitrienko E.V.


The authors are analyzing literature data and the results of their own investigations in the area of studying cellular-molecular (including signaling) mechanisms of the development of experimental stress reaction and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as the possibility for their correction by means of short synthetic peptides and preparation of native DNA. The conception suggesting that mechanisms of disturbances in interaction between the immune and neuroendocrine systems during stress and chronic fatigue syndrome are not identical and result from changes in the level of functional activity of the neuroendocrine system, the activity of immune-competent cells and the intensity of cytokine signal transduction via the sp//ngomyelin pathway has been experimentally substantiated. The analysis of correcting effects of peptides vilon, epitalon, cortagen and preparation Derinat on disturbed functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems caused by the action of stressing factors and agents inducing chronic fatigue development has been performed.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):161-174
pages 161-174 views

Neurogenesis and neural stem cells

Korzhevskii D.E.


Current views on neural stem cell and their neurogenesis-providing role are discussed in the article. Critical analysis of current literature and data obtained in the Department of General and Special Morphology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Acad. Med. Sci. indicate existence in the CNS of not single population of neural stem cells (NSC), but several types of cells with different properties able to proliferate and differentiate in different directions in the limits of a unitary neural anlagen. It is conceivable that hematogenic cells can be involved in completion of population of neural predecessors in some special conditions, such as trauma, disease, hypoxia, etc. However, further evidence in neuro//stogenesis studies are needed to support the assumption.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):175-182
pages 175-182 views

Ecotoxicokinetics and ecotoxicodynamics of toxic chemical substances in conditions of tropics

Sofronov G.A., Roumak V.S., Lazarenko D.Y.


This article presented data of researches ecotoxicokinetics and ecotoxicodynamics of toxic chemical substances in conditions of tropics. Is shown powerful influence of a climate of tropics on consequences for the nature and the person of application of military herbicides in Vietnam.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):183-190
pages 183-190 views

Medical and biologic aspects of electromagnetic ecology

Suvorov N.B.


The fundamental results of researches of biological efficiency of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and ultra wide band pulse radiations are analyzed in the article. The role of various modes of an irradiation and biotropic parameters in realization of biological effects is discussed. Some questions of EMF medical application are mentioned.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):191-200
pages 191-200 views

The role of angiogenic and neuronal factors in the mechanisms of thymic involution in tumor growth

Kiseleva E.P.


The growth of many human and rodent tumors is accompanied by the development of thymic involution. The mechanisms of this process are still unknown. The article describes modern theories and approaches for studying this problem as well as the results of many years of research of the mechanisms of thymic involution during the growth of experimental tumors. New important data are received on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in regulation of thymocyte migration and apoptosis. Semaphorin ЗА demonstrated a chemorepellent activity towards thymocytes and abolished chemotactic effect of VEGF. VEGF and Semaphorin ЗА receptors were investigated on thymocytes and thymic stroma. The data obtained indicate on important role of VEGF and Semaphorin ЗА in the regulation of thymocyte migration in normal conditions and tumor growth.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):201-209
pages 201-209 views

Antigens and their role in the immuno-inflammatory reactions by atherogenesis of human

Pigarevsky P.V.


In the article are given the facts, which confirm and which develop the main position of the immunoinflammatory concept of atherosclerosis pathogenesis. As leading ethiopathogenesis link of disease is examined interaction of the modified low density lipoproteins with the vessel wall. The antigens, which play key pathogenetic role in formation and development of atherosclerotic damage, are investigated from the positions of the development of immune inflammation in the arteries wall by atherogenesis. In the human organism the new types of the atherogenic modifications of the low density lipoproteins are revealed and their distribution in the atherosclerotic damage of arteries is studied. It is shown that the most expressed immunoinflammatory changes of arteries walls are observed during the simultaneous detection in them the modified low density lipoproteins, obligatory parasites Chlamydia pneumoniae and heart shock proteins HSP 60/65, which is connected with the generality of cellular answer to the antigens in question. Pathologic process in such cases carries the acute, progressive character.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):210-217
pages 210-217 views

Role of vasopressin in the regulation of functions of the CNS

Tsikunov S.G., Belokoskova S.G.


The review of literature and own data on the role of vasopressin (AVP) in regulating of the functions of the CNS. In clinical investigations it has studied the central effects of selective agonist of V 2-receptor of AVP desmopressin (DDAVP) in the treatment of patients in the residual period after stroke. It was revealed: 1) positive influence of DDAVP on the speech function and attention in patients with various forms of aphasia, 2) reduction of anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with poststroke depression, and 3) improving the cerebral blood flow, especially in the area of the arteries, which developed stroke. The obtained data point to the new properties of vasopressin and enhance understanding of its functional role in humans giving new opportunities for its use in neurological patients.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):218-228
pages 218-228 views

Rehabilitative treatment of mempry impairment in drug eddicts and alcoholics with auricular acupuncture

Sapronov N.S., Shabanov P.D., Stepanov I.I., Efremov O.M., Losev N.A.


The main goal of the current research was to assess memory impairment via learning curves and its restoration during the process of rehabilitative treatment of drug addicted and alcoholic patients with auricular acupuncture. We applied a standard transfer function in the form Y = ВЗ x exp(-B2x(X-1)) + B4 x (1 -exp{-B2x(X-1 ))), where X is the trial number; Y is the number of recalled correct words, B2 is the learning rate, B3 is readiness to learn and B4 is ability to learn. Readiness and ability to learn was lower in drug addicts and alcoholics in comparison with the same measures in healthy participants. Auricular acupuncture led to a pronounce improvement in memory performance and restored values of readiness and ability to learn up to normal ones. Thus, auricular acupuncture can serve as an effective tool in restorative treatment of memory impairment in drug addicts and alcoholics in addition to pharmacotherapy.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):229-234
pages 229-234 views

Live influenza vaccine, development and further perspectives

Rudenko L.G., Larionova N.V., Kiseleva I.V., Isakova-Sivak I.N.


Substantial health and economic burden from annual influenza epidemics makes it of high priority to develop the means to fight this infection. Vaccines are the cornerstone of public health intervention to mitigate influenza epidemics and pandemics. This paper presents a summary of the development and utilization of live cold-adapted influenza reassortant vaccine, both seasonal and pandemic, in Russia with special attention to its advantages as well as further research plans.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):235-239
pages 235-239 views

Influenza virus transmission (experimental data)

Kiseleva I.V., Larionova N.V., Bazhenova E.A., Dubrovina I.A., Isakova-Sivak I.N., Grigorieva E.P., Donina S.A., Rudenko L.G.


Person-to-person transmission plays key role to seasonal and pandemic influenza virus spread. There is a need to better understand the transmission of influenza viruses so that we may improve methods for their control and prevention. At present, vaccination with live influenza vaccines has been used as an effective public health tool for influenza prophylaxis. Thus study of potential possibility of reassortment of circulating influenza viruses with live influenza vaccine viruses followed by vaccination is extremely important. In this study the ability of pig-to-pig transmission of H5N1 and novel pandemic H1N1 viruses was studied. The efficacy of vaccination with cold-adapted influenza viruses in blocking the transmission of wild type influenza viruses between guinea pigs was also examined. The results shown are H5N1 virus is highly contagious agent w//ch can be transmit both between co-caged naïve guinea pigs and individuals separated from infected animals at a distance of 4-5 meters. The relative mildness of the pandemic 2009 (H1N1) swine influenza virus transmission between guinea pigs compared to H5N1 virus was demonstrated. Data indicated that interference between cold-adapted and wild type influenza viruses had taken place. These findings open up new prospects in live influenza pandemic vaccine preparedness and confirmed weakness of fear that large scale vaccination of population with live attenuated influenza vaccine may lead to generation of reassortant «mutants-killers» possessed abnormally high level of pathogenicity.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):240-248
pages 240-248 views

Anti-influenza immunity: the contribution of Russian scientists to the research work and promising directions

Naykhin A.N.


This article contains data about contribution of Russian scientists to the researches of anti-influenza immunity and studies performed under the direct of author. Furthermore, defined outstanding questions w//ch require enhanced attention of specialists in viral immunology.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):249-255
pages 249-255 views

Regulation of gene transcription in group A and В streptococci

Dmitriev A.V.


Present review describes gene transcriptional regulation in group A and В pathogenic streptococci. The functions, features, mechanisms of action of two-component regulatory systems and global transcriptional regulators, as well as their influence on metabolism and virulence of streptococci are shown. The data obtained by the researchers of Department of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, are summarized.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):256-266
pages 256-266 views

Search effective ways solve problem struggle bacterial infectious pathology

Suvorov A.N.


Discoveries of the late 20, early 21 century allowed deciphering genomes of many organisms including the genomes of the pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. These discoveries provided a hope for quick solutions for controlling of the bacterial infections. However at present it is obvious that routine approaches based on antibiotic therapy do not have a bright future. Construction of new drugs or vaccines based on the knowledge of bacterial genomics does not look as easy as before due to many reasons including the problems caused by complexity of human microbiota. In the review article the author argue that old concepts of clinical microbiology based on the division of bacteria into symbionts and the parasites require revision.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):267-280
pages 267-280 views

Lobzin Yuriy Vladimirovich on the 60 ,h anniversary

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Medical academic journal. 2010;10(4):281-282
pages 281-282 views

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