Vol 11, No 1 (2021)

Articles

PRESERVATION OF AUTHENTICITY AND ADAPTATION OF AN OBJECT OF CULTURAL HERITAGE - COMPROMISE OR CONFLICT

ALEKSEENKO V.N., ZHILENKO O.B.

Abstract

The issue of carrying out repair and restoration works of the cultural heritage object of the XIX century “Building of the Noble Assembly” in Simferopol and its adaptation to a new functional purpose with the preservation of authenticity is considered. As a rule, the original purpose of the building loses its relevance, the adaptation of the object to new functions is sometimes the only way to preserve the object of cultural heritage. Such objects need an integrated approach not only in assessing the technical condition, ensuring a suffi cient level of safe operation, but also in complex microclimatic studies to ensure a comfortable future use. Adaptation of a cultural heritage site with underestimation of microclimatic parameters leads to a confl ict of authenticity and comfort. The article presents the results of a survey of the 19th century cultural heritage site “The Building of the Noble Assembly” in Simferopol with an assessment of its technical condition. Recommendations have been developed for strengthening the load-bearing structures of the building, allowing for further safe operation, while maintaining its authenticity.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):4-17
pages 4-17 views

HISTORY OF THE APPEARANCE OF EULER’S FORMULA. ISSUES OF STABILITY OF COMPRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS

MORDOVSKIY S.S., KISELEVA A.A.

Abstract

The article presents a brief overview of the life path of the Swiss mathematician and mechanic Leonard Euler, considers the history of the emergence of the formula for calculating stability, shows options for taking into account the fl exibility of an element in the calculations of reinforced concrete structures, the disadvantages of the Euler curve and the features of its application in relation to structures made of high-strength concrete and concrete hardening under pressure. An example of the result of using a non-linear deformation model in the calculations of eccentrically compressed reinforced concrete elements with the introduction into the algorithm for calculating a coeffi cient that takes into account the eff ect of buckling (defl ection) of an element on its bearing capacity is given.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):18-25
pages 18-25 views

MODELING OF STRESS-DEFORMED STATE OF BENDED REINFORCED CONCRETE ELEMENTS IN ZONES OF CLEAN AND TRANSVERSE BEND

PROKOPOVICH A.A., BUZOVSKAYA Y.A.

Abstract

The article deals with the analysis of the stress-strain state (SSS) of a bent reinforced concrete element in zones of pure and transverse bending. It is assumed that a bent element in the process of loading (after the formation of normal and oblique cracks) is divided into blocks, united by uncracked concrete and reinforcement that has adhesion to concrete. SSS was formed using the results of experimental studies of special prototypes in the PC “Lira-SAPR”. A fi nite element model of a prototype has been developed in the form of a reinforced concrete rectangular beam loaded with two identical concentrated forces in the span. By the method of successive approximations, the process of formation and formation of a system of cracks is realized, with which the beam is divided into blocks during loading. The results of calculating the fi nite element model and their comparison with experimental data are presented.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):26-33
pages 26-33 views

STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS MADE ON EXPERIMENTAL COMPOSITION OF A CONCRETE GOODS PLANT

TOSHIN D.S., KHUTOVA E.E., ASTAEVA Y.V.

Abstract

One of the options for optimization in the activities of the construction industry plants is the improvement of the composition of concrete mixtures, which requires control measures to assess indicators that ensure the reliability of operation of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. The strength of concrete in standard control cubes is at the same time the dominant parameter that determines the prospects of changes in production. The presented work presents the results of a comprehensive assessment of experimental concrete on cubes, prisms and reinforced concrete beams.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):34-38
pages 34-38 views

OPTIMIZATION OF HEAT PROTECTION CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNTRY COTTAGE ENCLOSURES

VYTCHIKOV Y.S., SAPAREV M.E., GOLIKOV V.A., SAFRONOV E.G.

Abstract

The article presents a method for determining the minimum permissible value of the heat transfer resistance of the outer wall, at which the minimum energy consumption is achieved during the operation of buildings with variable thermal conditions. A review of the sources devoted to this problem showed the presence of high costs of thermal energy during the heating of premises. On the basis of studies of all components of energy consumption in the operation of premises with intermitt ent heating systems, the authors of the article propose a method for determining the minimum permissible resistance to heat transfer, which provides minimum energy consumption. According to the described method, the calculation was made for external walls made of various materials. The analysis of the obtained results showed that a signifi cant infl uence on the minimum permissible value of the heat transfer resistance is exerted by a complex of thermophysical values cρλ. The presented graphical dependence R0 усл on the complex cρλ allows the designer to rationally choose a wall material that provides a minimum of energy consumption during the operation of the building. In the context of rising energy tariff s, such optimization of thermal protection characteristics is especially important for country cott ages operated in intermitt ent heating conditions.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):39-45
pages 39-45 views

DETERMINATION OF THE AVERAGE WALL TEMPERATURE OF THE PLATE IN A RECUPERATIVE HEAT EXCHANGER WITH A CORRUGATED MESH INSERT

KOSTUGANOV A.B., DEMIDOCHKIN V.V.

Abstract

This article discusses the issue of determining the value the average wall temperature of the plate of a recuperative heat exchanger type “air-to-air” with a corrugated mesh insert based on the results processing the data of a physical experiment to determine the thermohydraulic characteristics such heat exchange surfaces. It has been established that the temperature fi eld of heat exchange surfaces of this type is nonuniform, depends on the conditions of heat exchange and hydraulic regimes of air fl ow. Therefore, the adoption of the arithmetic means value of the measured surface temperatures as the calculated average temperature of the heat exchanger wall entails signifi cant errors in the subsequent processing of experimental data and fi nal the values of the heat transfer coeffi cients, the values the Nusselt criterion and the criterion equations of heat transfer. It is proposed to determine the average value the wall temperature of the heat exchanger based on the results of measurements the wall’s temperatures, the estimate of the coordinates the center of distribution the results of measurements the wall temperatures, the equations of heat balance and heat transfer.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):46-55
pages 46-55 views

ELIMINATION OF IMPACT WHEN CLOSING THE DISC VALVE ON THE DRAINAGE OF HORIZONTAL SEDIMENTS

ANCIFEROV S.A., CHIRKOVA E.V., KUCHERENKO M.N.

Abstract

The reasons for the occurrence of an impact when closing a butt erfl y valve installed on pipelines that discharge sludge water from horizontal sedimentation tanks of treatment facilities are considered. The assumption about the possibility of water hammer was experimentally refuted. It is hypothesized that the cause of the impact is the disruption of the fl uid fl ow when fl owing around a fl at plate at critical angles of att ack. A numerical experiment was carried out, which consists in modeling the movement of a water fl ow in a completely fi lled, closed space of a pipe. As a result of the experiment, it was revealed that the fl ow stall was caused by the formation of zones of high and low pressure, respectively, before and after the valve. This provides additional energy to increase the closing torque, comparable to the force of a pneumatic actuator, and results in an impact.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):56-62
pages 56-62 views

MECHANICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE FISH PROCESSING INDUSTRY

STEPANOV S.V., SOLKINA O.S., AVDEENKOV P.P., BELYAKOV A.V., STEPANOV A.S.

Abstract

Currently, the Strategy for the development of the fi shery sector of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030 has been approved. To implement this strategy, the construction of new and reconstruction of existing enterprises is planned. Wastewater from fi sh processing contains a large amount of scales, remnants of entrails (liver, intestines, ovaries), proteins and lipids. Therefore, when developing a treatment technology, it is necessary to pay increased att ention to mechanical and physicochemical pre-treatment of effl uents. This article summarizes the experience of foreign and domestic research on mechanical and physical-chemical wastewater treatment. Also presented are the results of studies on wastewater treatment of two fi sh processing enterprises. The use of Al2(SO4)3 at a dose of 50 mg/l for Al2O3 gave the best results in a laboratory experiment.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):63-71
pages 63-71 views

RESULTS OF PILOT TESTS OF THE VSEP TECHNOLOGY ON THE EXAMPLE OF PURIFICATION OF CONTAMINATED ACID WASHING WATERS BY NANOFILTRATION

TSABILEV O.V., JOHNSON G.

Abstract

Shown are the results of a series of pilot tests for the purifi cation of waste (contaminated) acidic wash water formed during the production of graphite by the leaching method. The tests were carried out in laboratory and pilot modes (on-site) on the “LP” series machine. Purifi cation was simulated using nanofi ltration membranes using VSEP technology. This technology of vibro- membrane fi ltration makes it possible to purify such waters without preliminary purifi cation and the use of reagents (antiscalant) with a %Recovery more than 90 %. The mechanism for choosing the optimal sheet polymer membrane and the mechanism for determining the best working pressure are shown. Concentration series were carried out to determine the stability of the process and the duration of the fl ushing interval. The test results allow the design of an industrial water purifi cation system.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):72-78
pages 72-78 views

CONDITIONS OF DISCRETE CONVERGENCE OF STRUCTURES SYNTHESIS MODELS IN METAL AND NON-METALS COMPOSITIONS

DOROSHKO G.P.

Abstract

The set-theoretical convergence of models of continuous and discrete synthesis processes in the compositions of metals and non-metals at the action of ray sources is shown. The non-metal density function obtained by the IDS thermal impulses on the temperature axis projection has a periodic view with fi xed stationary temperatures. They coincide with the boundaries of diff erent areas of change in the speeds of metal heating. This convergence of models to the general periodic operator is possible under four conditions of beam scanning: separation, compactness, property of states, stability. Then the current reciprocity ratios of the system (metals/non-metals) allow the use of the temperature of stationary non-metals as support for metals and serves to determine the parameters of ray sources when synthesizing structures in the compositions of the volume of the material.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):79-86
pages 79-86 views

ANALYSIS OF THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL VOLUME OF THE STORAGE RESERVOIR FOR THE POWER COMPLEX AS PART OF THE WES-PSPP

Evdokimov S.V., Bekin N.V.

Abstract

The article considers the peculiarities of using energy complexes as part of the WPP-PSPP. It is noted that the most relevant and promising will be the use of such energy complexes in environmentally unfavorable regions that are not among the priorities for the development of wind energy. However, the energy complexes as part of the WPP-PSPP are not currently widespread, one of the reasons is the lack of methods for calculating the optimal parameters of the energy complexes, which should include calculations to determine the volume of the storage reservoir of the energy complex. As a result of solving problems using the analysis of methods of economic effi ciency, methods of ecological justifi cation for autonomous power supply systems, a methodology was developed to determine the optimal volume of the storage reservoir for the energy complex as part of the WPP-PSPP, the main provisions of which are described in this article. The presented methodology allows you to choose the most rational location and shape of the accumulating reservoir on the ground, to fi t the outline of the reservoir into natural conditions, as well as to optimize the ratio of its depth of work and cross-sectional area.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):87-90
pages 87-90 views

RESTORATION OF THE OVERLAP OF A WOODEN LOG BUILDING

BALKIN V.M., FROLOVA I.G.

Abstract

The article deals with the diffi culties of restoration of cultural heritage objects related to the implementation of construction works during the restoration of structures, as well as the fi nancing of restoration works. The moments of conducting a survey of the structures of objects of “age” objects are touched upon. For example, the repair of historic wooden ceiling of a log building, considered methods and ways of strengthening wooden elements overlap, products used, a combination of historical and modern materials. As a result of the repair of the wooden fl oor, the spatial rigidity of the building was restored, and the fi re resistance of the structures was increased.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):91-95
pages 91-95 views

SPECIFICITY OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND SPATIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PETROGRAD SIDE OF ST. PETERSBURG

GRANSTREM M.A., ZOLOTAREVA M.V.

Abstract

The preservation of the historical, urban planning and architectural heritage of the central territories of St. Petersburg requires a special approach to solving the problems of reconstruction and renovation of the historical urban environment. The modern period, characterized by active reconstruction of the historical center, puts forward new requirements for the preservation of cultural heritage sites. The att itude to history as an experience, on which modern practice should be based, presupposes the disclosure of historical architectural and urban planning processes on the basis of systematization of existing and fi lling in missing information. This allows us to analyze the spatial and temporal transformations that the city underwent in the course of its development. Revealing the internal laws of the genesis of these processes is of great importance. The article analyzes the state of urban landscapes within the boundaries of the historical territories of the Petrogradsky district of St. Petersburg.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):96-102
pages 96-102 views

CONCEPT OF THE COLLAGE CITY OF COLIN ROWE AND FRED KETTER IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE THEORY

DANILOVA E.V.

Abstract

The article examines the collage concept proposed by Colin Rowe and Fred Kett er as an architectural and urban design strategy and presented in the book “Collage City”. The prerequisites of the collage concept are described, the conditions under which Colin Rowe’s scientifi c and creative position was formed, which was developed by his students, are described. The article analyzes the arguments of the authors of the book in defense of the collage theory, which presupposes the search for balance and compromise between the historical and the contemporary city. The importance of the theory of collage in modern architectural and urban planning within the framework of the metamodern paradigm is determined.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):103-109
pages 103-109 views

“RESLOBALIZATION” OF CITIES AS AN EFFECTIVE RESPONSE TO THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHALLENGE OF THE CONTEMPORARY. PART I: GENERAL PROVISIONS, RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

MONASTYRSKAYA M.Y.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the problem of adaptation of the living environment of the population of large and largest cities to the vital and dangerous challenges of the new coronavirus pandemic. The author suggests that historically developed cities in their traditional hypostasis have a certain” anti-epidemic “ potential of morphotypological genesis, which must be taken into account, it is advisable to use and it is desirable to increase in the extreme situation of the global COVID-19 epidemic. The working hypothesis of the study is formulated on the basis of the results of monitoring the data of the offi cial St. Petersburg statistics, which refl ect the dynamics of the incidence of new coronavirus infection among citizens, starting from March 2020. According to these results, the most stable epidemiological situation persists in the historical suburbs of the” northern capital “ and its central administrative districts. The center of St. Petersburg was originally developed as a “conglomerate of sett lements” - pre-industrial and proto- industrial urban planning morphotypes that have been inherent in the Russian urban planning culture since ancient times. Urban sett lements, which preserved their planning characteristics in the course of a historically predetermined morphotypological transformation, became the basis for the formation of a set of spatial loci in the structure of a megalopolis - separate components of the urban landscape, within which, if necessary, the introduction of stringent control measures and epidemiological situation in St. Petersburg, it is possible to protect “idealizations” quality of urban life and where work most eff ectively medicareinsurance “antipandemic” sliders “disaggregation”, “distancing”, “disinfection”.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):110-117
pages 110-117 views

MOSCOW’S INFLUENCE IN THE ARCHITECTURE OF RURAL CLASSICAL CHURCHES IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION

PONOMARENKO E.V.

Abstract

A study done at the expense of the State program of the Russian Federation “Science and technology” in the framework of the plan of basic scientifi c research Ministry of Russia and the RUSSIAN. In the article, an att empt has been made to the analysis of a wide range of issues related to the formation of the rural architecture of Orthodox churches in the territory of the Middle Volga region in the 19th century. Considered layout, composition and stylistic features of the architecture of Orthodox churches in the region. Peculiarities of regional religious architecture of the Middle Volga region. Provides extensive material fi eld surveys.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):118-124
pages 118-124 views

ARCHITECTURE OF RURAL HOUSES OF CLERGYMEN OF THE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES IN THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION AND THE SOUTHERN URALS

PONOMARENKO E.V., KARASEV F.V.

Abstract

The article for the fi rst time carried out a comprehensive analysis of the architecture of rural houses of clergymen in the middle Volga region and the Southern Urals in the 19th - early 20th century. The materials of construction, planning, composition and stylistic features of the architecture of these buildings in the region have been studied. Houses made by local carpenters and designed in St. Petersburg are considered. Changes in the architecture of such buildings over time have been revealed. Examples and descriptions of the architecture of diff erent types of wooden houses of clergymen are given. The most detailed complex of buildings at the church of Nicholas the Wonderworker in the village of Epifanovka. The features of the interweaving of “red-brick” and neo-Russian architectural styles in the decoration of the buildings of this complex have been analyzed.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):125-131
pages 125-131 views

EVOLUTION OF THE PRE-REGULAR SPATIAL AND PLANNING STRUCTURE OF THE TOWN OF TOTMA

SIDOROVA A.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the pre-regular period of evolution of the planning structure of the town of Totma in the period from the second half of the XV to the beginning of the XIX century. Based on the sources, the main prerequisites and factors for the formation of a pre-regular town layout are considered, and the main stages are highlighted. The emergence and development of the city’s religious centers and the features of the pre-regional planting structure in accordance with the gradual formation of the city’s territory have been analyzed. The characteristic features of the architecture of the church complexes of the city and the creation of a panorama at diff erent stages of the existence of the city of Totma have been studied. The panoramas of the city from the river, the staging of the city’s temples on the relief are analyzed.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):132-142
pages 132-142 views

PRACTICE OF IRVING JOHN GILL MODERNISM

FILIPPOV V.D.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the work of Irving John Gill during his heyday, and then in conditions when the principles of modernism discovered by him, due to the lack of society’s need for new architecture in the United States, were not needed in this country - from 1909 until his death in 1936. New technologies used by Gill in the construction of public and residential buildings from concrete are described as well as his unsuccessful participation in the Panama-California World Exhibition of 1915-191, the construction near Los Angeles of the “ideal” city of Torrance and end-of-life projects. The reasons why Gill did not become the leader of the American and one of the leaders of world architecture are discussed, and his work is still controversial.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):143-159
pages 143-159 views

LIFESTYLE, ARCHITECTURE AND QUALITY OF THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT

GENERALOV V.P., GENERALOVA E.M.

Abstract

The study reveals the aspects that defi ne the concept of “lifestyle”, including the main categories: standard of living, lifestyle, quality of life and lifestyle. Insuffi cient knowledge of the mutual infl uence of people’s “lifestyle” on the typological structure of apartments and residential buildings, on the quality of the urban environment is emphasized. The infl uence of the level of urbanization of the city territory on the characteristics of the “urban lifestyle” is considered. Problematic issues are raised related to the debate on the relationship between building density and comfort and the quality index of the living environment. The main directions of fundamental research in the fi eld of architecture, aimed at the development of new types of buildings, are touched upon. The emphasis is made on the methods of using high-rise buildings for the humanization of the urban environment and the formation of a modern “compact city”.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):160-168
pages 160-168 views

ASSOCIATIVE LANDSCAPE IN THE SPACE OF VISUAL AND SEMIOTIC EXPERIENCE

SHLIENKOVA E.V., DOLGOVA A.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the concept of an associative landscape and the phenomenon of the visual nature of its perception. The aim of the work is to study the sign-symbolic images of nature on the example of a cultural landscape and their visualization of graphic design. The article examines the features of associative landscapes, the semiotic concept of the cultural landscape and its semantic reading as a text, the concept of semiosphere and noosphere. The object of the research is the associative landscape as a special type of space perception based on a visual-semiotic language. The subject of the research is the cultural landscape as a visual-spatial category, expressed in sign-symbolic images and directly related to the natural environment.
Urban construction and architecture. 2021;11(1):169-174
pages 169-174 views

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