Vol 487, No 5 (2019)

Mathematics
On the superposition principle for Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations
Bogachev V.I., Röckner M., Shaposhnikov S.V.
Abstract

We give a generalization of the so-called superposition principle for probability solutions to the Cauchy problem for the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation, according to which such a solution is generated by a solution to the corresponding martingale problem.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):483-486
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Properties of extrema of estimates for middle derivatives of odd order in Sobolev classes
Garmanova T.A., Sheipak I.A.
Abstract

The embedding constants for the Sobolev spaces W2n[0;1]→Wk[0; 1], 0 ≤ kn - 1 are considered. The properties of the functions An,k(x) arising in the inequalities |f(k)(x)|≤An,k (x)││f||W2n[0;1], are studied. The extremum points of An;k are calculated for k = 3, 5 and all admissible n. The global maximum of these functions is found, and the exact embedding constants are calculated.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):487-492
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Constructive generalization of classical sufficient second-order optimality conditions
Evtushenko Y.G., Tret’yakov A.A.
Abstract

In this paper, we consider new sufficient conditions of optimality of the second-order for equality constrained optimization problems, which essentially enhance and complement the classical ones and are constructive. For example, they establish equivalence between sufficient conditions in the equality constrained optimization problems and sufficient conditions for optimality in equality constrained problems by reducing the latter to equalities with the help of introducing slack variables. Previously, when using the classical sufficient optimality conditions, this fact was not considered to be true, that is, the existing classical sufficient conditions were not complete, so the proposed optimality conditions complement the classical ones and close the question of the equivalence of the problems with inequalities and the problems with equalities when reducing the first to the second by introducing slack variables.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):493-495
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Multidimensional bilinear Hardy inequalities
Stepanov V.D., Shambilova G.E.
Abstract

A characterization of n-dimensional bilinear Hardy inequalities in weighted Lebesgue spaces is given.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):496-498
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Physics
Cascade х(3)-nonlinear processes in new SRS active Ca2MgSi2O7 crystal
Kaminskii A.A.
Abstract

The observation of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in magnesium silicate Ca2MgSi2O7, entering the family of D32d-tetragonal acentric crystals with the structure of melilite, is reported. The registered components of the Stokes and anti-Stokes Χ(3)-nonlinear crystal lasing are identified with two active SRS‑modes ωSRS1 ≈ 908 cm1 and ωSRS2 ≈ 668 cm1, which also manifest in the generation of combined phonon modes ωSRS3C ≈ 170 cm1 and ωSRS4C ≈ 1270 cm1.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):499-501
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Mechanics
Attraction basins in the generalized Kapitsa’s problem
Morozov N.F., Belyaev А.К., Tovstik P.E., Tovstik T.M., Tovstik T.P.
Abstract

Stability of vertical position of an inverted pendulum under action of support vibration as well as the attraction basin of this position is considered. In addition to the classic Kapitsa problem for the harmonic vibration of support, the poly-harmonic and random vibration of support is investigated. The condition of stability of vertical position is determined and the attraction basin of this stable position is studied.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):502-506
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The strain-rate sensitivity of irreversible deformation of the metallic multilayer composite GLARE
Selyutina N.S., Petrov Y.V., Parameswaran V., Sharma A.P.
Abstract

Responses of the aluminum multilayer composite to dynamic loading are described by the relaxation model of plasticity. Relations between the rate sensitivity of the multilayer composite, parameters of the dynamic loading and the strain rate sensitivity of its components are established. It is shown that estimates of the rate sensitivity turned out to be higher for GLARE composite in comparison to the rate sensitivity estimates for its component of Al 2024-T3 sheet metal.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):507-510
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Chemistry
Synthesis of the new sodium pectinate metal complexes with cobalt and nickel ions and their antimicrobial activity
Minzanova S.T., Arkhipova D.M., Khabibullina A.V., Mironova L.G., Voloshina A.D., Sapunova A.S., Kulik N.V., Milyukov V.A., Mironov V.F.
Abstract

New water-soluble nickel and cobalt complexes-sodium cobalt pectinate (PNaCo) and sodium nickel pectinate (PNaNi)-have been obtained from sodium pectinate with a salt formation extent of 35%, and their physicochemical properties have been studied. Antimicrobial activity of PNaCo and PNaNi against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi has been shown.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):511-514
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Ag-selective nanotubes based on bisthiacalix[4]arene with ethylene sulfide bridges
Muravev A.A., Trushina E.A., Yakupov A.T., Solovieva S.E., Antipin I.S.
Abstract

An approach to a new type of molecular nanotubes based on bisthiacalix[4]arene with ethylene sulfide bridges in cone stereoisomeric form has been suggested and implemented. This ligand has shown selective liquid-phase extraction of Ag+.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):515-518
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Chemical Technology
Synthesis of nanostructured island alumina coatings on the surface of macropores of hierarchically porous nickel
Gnedovets A.G., Zelenskii V.A., Ankudinov A.B., Tregubova I.V., Alymov M.I.
Abstract

The paper reports on the synthesis of nanostructured low-temperature transition alumina island coatings on the surface of macropores of permeable monolithic hierarchically porous nickel. It is established that hexagonal alumina nanoplates are the primary structural elements of the coating.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):519-523
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Physical chemistry
On the properties of pre-nucleation (proto-mineral) clusters
Askhabov A.M.
Abstract

For the first time, the characteristic properties of proto-mineral (pre-crystallization) clusters-quatarons formed in supersaturated media and considered as special forms of the structural organization of matter in the nanoworld are systematically described. The possible existence of such clusters was reported in 1998, and today the phenomenon of pre-crystallization structuring of matter is recognized as a proven fact, and there is still little information about their unusual properties and behavior, there are no direct observations.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):524-527
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New fibrilar composites on the base of biodegradable polyethers poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) and polylactide with high selective absorbtion of oil from water medium
Iordanskii A.L., Samoilov N.A., Olkhov A.A., Markin V.S., Rogovina S.Z., Kildeeva N.R., Berlin A.A.
Abstract

Ultrafine polyester fibers - poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate), polylactide, and their compositions of various compositions - were obtained by electrospinning. The high absorption capacity of these fibers in relation to oil is comparable to the absorbents used, however, the advantage of the proposed systems is their biodegradability, which implies their subsequent utilization. In combination with moderate water absorption, the systems being developed can be considered as promising oil absorbents from water-in-oil environments during environmental disasters and water pollution.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):528-531
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Geology
Middle paleozoic rhyolite of Gorny and Rudny Altai: geochronology and composition characteristics
Kuibida M.L., Timkin V.I., Krivchikov V.A., Murzin O.V., Krupchatnikov V.I., Popova O.M., Kruk N.N., Rudnev S.N., Kuibida Y.V., Shokal’sky S.P., Gusev N.I., Komiya T., Aoki S., Sun M., Naryzhnova A.V.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of geological, geochemical and isotope-geochronological studies of subvolcanic rhyolites of the Western Gorny Altai and Rudny Altai which have related to two large volcanic systems, the Altai-Minusinsk and Altai-Salair, respectively. The results of U-Pb isotopic dating of zircons revealed two groups of ages ~410-405 and 390-381 million years. Isotope-geochemical characteristics of rhyolites show relatively high values of εNd(T) = +2,7...6,0 with relatively young values of model ages T(DM) = 851-966 Ma in the Rudny Altai and more ancient - up to 1266 Ma in the West Gorny Altai. Geochemical characteristics indicate that its composition is consistent with transitional field between within-plate and island-arc felsic magmas. The results obtained correspond to the two-stage evolution of volcanism and its migration from the continent to the ocean.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):532-537
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Radon and tectonic activity of the faults at the Central Mongolia
Seminsky K.Z., Bobrov A.A., Demberel S.
Abstract

The relationship between the radon and tectonic activity of the faults for two geodynamically active regions of Central Mongolia is shown. Radon fault activity grew with increased seismic activity and with an increase in the contribution of extension in the dynamic framework of their formation. It is higher in concentrated faults of late stages of development compared with wide zones of fractures in the early stages of the formation. The established patterns will help increase the effectiveness of the use of radon surveys in studies of the seismic hazard of faults of the Earth’s crust.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):538-542
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Jurassic anoxic event in the Pacific (on the West Kamchatka-Asia data)
Filatova N.I.
Abstract

The correlation of allochthonous lithotectonic complexes of the Pacific allows to establish Early Jurassic (Sinemurian-Toarcian) anoxic event (J1-OAE) for time in the Asia-West Kamchatka region. This event is characterized by organic-riched black cherts and shales bearing pyrite that accumulated in the euxinic oceanic deep water basins of the Pacific. Later anoxic regime gradually weakened that was reflected in dominating of Midle-Upper Jurassic red gematite jaspers. J1-OAE in the Pacific was synchronous to global warming induced by planetary magmatic activity. Volcanic gases and hydroterms stimulated euxinic conditions in the deep water basins. The Sinemurian-Toarcian interval of the OAE in the Pacific Ocean is confirmed by data of the numerous World basins.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):543-546
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Cover of last glaciation deposits at the Eastern Barents Sea: originality of composition, thicknesses distribution, grandiosity and singularity of structure forms
Epshtein O.G., Dlugach A.G., Starovoytov A.V.
Abstract

Analysis of the data of seismoacoustic investigation and geotechnical drilling in the Eastern Barents Sea has shown the following. The Upper Weichselian glacial deposits cover spread regionally. It represents seismostratigraphic complex (SSC) SSC III, unconformity occurs on the Mezozoic deposits, partly - on the Lower Weichselian moraine (SSC V) and is overlain unconformity by the Late Glacial glaciomarine (SSC II) - Holocene marine (SSC I) sediments. SSC III consists of two seismofacies (SF). Predominant SSF III-C are formed by the ordinary moraine almost solely, and SF III-T - by the M-moraine. The presence of these moraines determines SSC III thicknesses distribution nearly completely. The ordinary moraine thickness fluctuates from < 10 m to 10-25 m. The M-moraine forms huge in plan, positive accumulation bodies in which its thickness > 25 m and arrives at 50-75 m. The Upper Weichselian deposit cover has also the other grandiosity structure-morphological elements: end moraines (the giant form was discovered) and powerful subglacial cuts, which represent unique unburied analog of the known so-called tunnel valleys. Structure, composition, thicknesses particularities of SSC III deposits cover are determinated by specific character of the development of the Last Glaciation in the region.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):547-550
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Geochemistry
Role of desorption processes in the transformation of dissolved barium runoff in the mixing zone of river and sea waters: experimental modeling data
Savenko A.V.
Abstract

The sorption-desorption balance of barium at the interaction of muddy-sandy terrigenous material with seawater was experimentally determined. The average value of barium desorption in the mixing zone of river and sea waters is 13 μg/g, which leads to additional input of 80 thousand t/year of barium into the ocean, or 8,6% of its entry into the ocean without taking into account the transformation of runoff at the river-sea geochemical barrier. The assessment of the role of desorption processes in the transformation of dissolved barium runoff is in order of magnitude consistent with the data of field observations for most of the mouth areas of the world’s rivers.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):551-553
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U-Pb geochronology of garnet from Daschkesan skarn deposit (Lesser Caucasus)
Stifeeva M.V., Salnikova E.B., Samsonov A.V., Kotov A.B., Gritsenko Y.D.
Abstract

We present new U-Pb ID-TIMS data for garnet from the Daschkesan skarn deposit. The uranium content ranges from 8 to 8,5 ppm. Garnet is characterized by low common Pb (Pbc/Pbt = 0,01-0,17). The concordia age is 146±3 Ma (MSWD = 0,87). Our results demonstrate the reliability of calcium garnet as a mineral for the precise timing of skarn formation.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):554-557
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Synthesis of new polytype modifications of Fe7C3 AT 5,5 GPa
Chepurov A.I., Gromilov S.A., Sonin V.M., Sukhikh A.S., Zhimulev E.I., Chepurov A.A., Sobolev N.V.
Abstract

The paper presents the results of experimental studies on the synthesis of carbide Fe7C3 at 5,5 GPa. It was found that carbide Fe3C and several polytypes of carbide Fe7C3 are formed together with diamond when the system is cooled. It is believed that Fe7C3 carbide may be a component of the Earth’s inner core. The obtained results indicate that carbide Fe7C3 in the form of polytypic modifications under natural conditions could be formed at relatively low pressures at the stage of differentiation of the Earth.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):558-561
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Geophysics
To the question of the existence of a strike-slip fault in the Arctic Ocean between the underwater Lomonosov ridge and the adjacent shelf
Kaminsky V.D., Avetisov G.P., Poselov V.A.
Abstract

The research object is the junction zone between the underwater Lomonosov ridge and East Siberian shelf. We intend to prove the absence of the strike-slip fault within this junction zone. The existence of the fault zone within this junction zone is still debatable. Formerly used geological and geophysical datawere unsufficient. To remove this ambiguity, seismological data obtained in neighboring areas was applied. Analysis of the earthquakes epicenters in the region showed that in cases of existence of such a fault zone, modern intraplate seismic activity should be certainly registered within its limits. The aseismicity of the junction zone between the underwater Lomonosov ridge and adjacent shelf areas clearly indicates the genetic unity exhisting between these tectonic structures.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):562-565
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Geography
Integrated mathematical model of the Barents and White seas large marine ecosystem - a tool for assessing natural risks and efficient use of biological resources
Berdnikov S.V., Kulygin V.V., Sorokina V.V., Dashkevich L.V., Sheverdyaev I.V.
Abstract

Integrated mathematical model of the Barents and White seas LME is proposed as a tool for assessing natural risks and rational use of biological resources. The model includes the following main blocks (modules): a) oceanographic conditions and biological productivity; b) trophodynamics and fishery management; c) environmental and biota pollution; d) socio-economic development; e) assessment of environmental risks from marine activities. Integrated model was used for assessing: the hydrological variability, long-term dynamics of ecosystem productivity and fishing load on the most important commercial species of the Barents Sea. A new zoning of the Barents Sea taking into account the geomorphological and hydrological factors was performed under the guidance of academician G.G. Matishov. Maps of the simulated gross primary production in the Barents Sea for the second half of the 20th and first decade of the 21st centuries are presented. The energy balance in the Barents Sea ecosystem at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century was calculated by trophodynamic model. It is concluded that determination of the fishing load on populations should base on using ecosystem mathematical models instead of single-species models. To estimate the fishing mortality, it is necessary to take into account not only the spatial effects associated with the characteristics of the fishes' life cycle and the distribution of fishing load, but also the influence of climatic factors and inner-ecosystem interactions. The use of modern information technologies, both in the field of primary data analysis, and in the area of their generalization to diagnose past changes, makes it possible to better understand the consequences for the Barents and White seas LME of existing natural resource use plans, taking into account the experience (sometimes negative) of past years and the expected climatic changes.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):566-572
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Oceanology
Horizontal flow of sedimentary matter in the coastal zones of Barents and White seas
Mityaev M.V., Gerasimova M.V., Pavlova L.G.
Abstract

The first data on the scale of the lateral movement of the sessile in the water column are obtained. It is established that the scale of the lateral movement of suspended matter in the coastal regions is 50-210 times greater than the vertical flow of matter to the bottom.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):573-577
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Biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology
Cardiotoxins from cobra Naja oxiana change the force of contraction and the character of rhythmoinotropic phenomena in the rat myocardium
Averin A.S., Astashev M.E., Andreeva T.V., Tsetlin V.I., Utkin Y.N.
Abstract

The study of the influence of cobra Naja oxiana cardiotoxins on the contractility of the rat papillary muscles and its rhythm-inotropic characteristics has that the presence of toxins induces a slight contractility decrease in the stimulation frequency range up to 0,1 Hz. In the stimulation frequency range from 0,1 to 0,5 Hz a positive inotropic effect is found. However, the positive inotropic effect is replaced by a negative one with further increase in the frequency up to 3 Hz. In the presence of cardiotoxins, the positive force-frequency relationship in the region of 1-3 Hz, characteristic of healthy rat myocardium, disappears and relationship becomes completely negative. L‑type calcium channel blocker nifedipine does not affect the changes induced by toxins, while a high concentration (10 mM) of calcium prevents the effects of cardiotoxins on the muscle. The results obtained show that the impairment of the force-frequency relationship occurs long before the development of irreversible damage in the myocardium and may be the first sign of the pathological action of cardiotoxins.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):578-583
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Cell biology
Changes in the regulatory T-lymphocyte counts in HIV-infected patients with a discordant response to antiretroviral therapy
Saidakova E.V., Shmagel K.V., Shmagel N.G., Korolevskaya L.B., Chereshnev V.A.
Abstract

We examined HIV‑infected patients with different efficiency of immune system restoration during the course of antiretroviral therapy. The study showed that against the background of low CD4+ T‑cell counts, subject with a discordant immunologic response (patients with less than 350 CD4+ T‑cells per µl of blood after more than two years of treatment) develop a regulatory CD4+ T‑cell (Treg) deficiency. Furthermore, in these patients, the immunodeficiency is accompanied by an increase in the Treg frequency. Accumulation of regulatory T‑cells in the blood of HIV‑infected subjects with discordant response to the treatment indicates a high viability of this T‑cell subset.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):584-587
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Physiology
Influence of cranial radiation by high-energy protons on the visuo-motor behavior of nonhuman primates
Latanov A.V., Tereshchenko L.V., Ostrovsky M.A.
Abstract

The visually driven instrumental conditioning on a one monkey (Macaca mulatta) was conducted after single-dose cranial irradiation with high-energy protons. The monkey executed saccades toward the visual stimuli and then performed the movement with ipsilateral hand correspondingly to their location in a right or left visual hemifield. The rate of correct responses with dominant right hand exceeded the rate of such responses with left hand and decreased briefly two months after irradiation. Then a month later, the rate of correct right-hand responses returned to the level before irradiation. No significant dynamics was revealed for the rate of correct left-hand responses. The proton irradiation effect on right-hand responses suggests possible short-term disturbances in the eye-hand coordination for right handedness while the visual perception remains resistant.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):588-591
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Bioinorganic markers of lens capsule barrier properties loss in age-related cataracts development
Pakhomova N.A., Borisenko T.E., Novikov I.A., Avetisov S.E.
Abstract

The study demonstrates the significance of development mechanism of age-related cataract consequent to the loss of barrier properties of the lens capsule based on analysis of the accumulation of sodium, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Spatial cluster analysis and correlation analysis were used to reveal for the first time the relation between the diffusion of light in the body of the crystalline lens and changes in its elemental composition. Distribution fields of elevated concentrations of sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium and chlorine are consistent with geometry of the lens capsule and clusterize together with areas of opacification in its body. The accumulation geometry of the elements in the lens body is also commonly seen in the aqueous humor of the anterior chamber, which can be considered evidence for excessive transitioning of their compounds through the lens capsule shell, while spatial connection with transparency changes - proof of its participation in cataractogenesis.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):592-595
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General biology
Оn the occurrence of giant deer of the genus Arvernoceros at Taurida Cave in Crimea
Vislobokova I.A., Titov V.V., Lavrov A.V., Startsev D.B., Tarasenko K.K., Lopatin A.V.
Abstract

The giant deer Arvernoceros verestchagini David, 1992, authochtonous species of the Early Pleistocene biota of North Black Sea area, is discovered in Crimea. The giant deer was a member of fossil fauna of vertebrates from the Pleistocene deposits of Taurida karst cave. According to biochronological data, this fauna is dated to 1,8-1,5 Ma.

Доклады Академии наук. 2019;487(5):596-599
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