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Vol 16, No 3 (2016)

Articles
CHRONICLE EXPOSURE TO LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF DIOXINS AND POSSIBLE RISKS FOR HUMAN HEALTH: SOME ASPECTS OF TOXIC EFFECTS REVEALING
Sofronov G.A., Roumak V.S., Umnova N.V., Belov D.A., Turbabina K.A.
Abstract
High levels of dioxins, especially tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have been found in the blood, placenta and breast milk of humans currently living in Vietnam territories that suffered from ecocide during Vietnam War. Dioxins may enter human body from polluted environments, where they have been found, with food as well as by the trans-placental route and with breast milk. Studies of human health in association with environmental dioxin levels made it possible to determine mother-to-child toxin transfer parameters as factors of the adverse effects of dioxins in descending generations. We assessed the consequences of such exposure of human body to dioxins for the development of children and for adult health. The resulting estimates may help to verify the toxic effects of low-dose dioxins in Russia.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):7-18
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CONTINUUMS IN CLINICAL MEDICINE
Mineev V.N.
Abstract
Advances in clinical and experimental medicine expand the available evidence related to the pathogenesis of diseases and provide for its systematization, generalization, and logical treatment leading to novel concepts. One of them is the concept of continuum, which involves in medicine the accumulation of knowledge about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of diseases, their pathogenesis, sanogenesis, and of course the development of novel therapeutic approaches. A generally accepted continuum i.e. the cardiovascular one, as well as more recent concepts, such as the cardiorenal, cardiopulmonary, allergologic, and other continuums, are considered. The concept of «arborescent» continuum is suggested for use in clinical medicine to stress that knowing the continuing succession of what occurs in the pathogenesis of a disease is not only important for theory, but also renders it natural and logical to make the onset of treatment of interconnected diseases as early as possible, the same being true for preventive interventions including preclinical measures.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):19-28
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THE INFLUENCE OF DYSLIPIDEMIA ON PARAMETERS OF CELLULAR AND HUMORAL IMMUNITY IN PATIENTS WITH STABLE ANGINA PECTORIS
Shcheglov D.S., Dudanov I.P., Shcheglova L.V., Avdeeva M.V.
Abstract
Study objective: To determine the features of cellular and humoral immune responses in patients with stable angina pectoris (SA) having different degrees of coronary vascular bed impairments. Materials and methods: In a group comprising 67 SA patients aged 60,1±10,1 years, coronary angiography and clinical blood tests were performed, lipid profile was determined, and cellular and humoral immune responses were studied. Results: Increased blood lipid atherogenicity index (BLAI) is associated with increased circulatory immune complexes (CIC) at p<0,05. In IHD patients having myocardium antigen titer score (MATS) from 3 to 8, BLAI is significantly higher than in IHD patients whose MATS is 1 to 2 (p<0,05). Myocardium antigen level increases with increasing blood tryglycerides (p<0,05). Increased LDP and total cholesterol were associated with increased leucocyte migration inhibition index (LMI) (r=0,35 at р<0,05 and r=0,41 at р<0,05, respectively). Lipid profile normalization helps to decrease MATS (p<0,05) and ILMI (p<0,05). Conclusion: The data suggest that dyslipidemia adversely influences IHD by activating inflammatory responses of both types, cellular and humoral.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):29-34
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DISORDERS OF THE VEGETATIVE REGULATION OF VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM FUNCTIONS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME
Weber V.R., Makhanov D.I., Karibayev K.R.
Abstract
Changes in the regulation and functions of vascular endothelium were studied in 169 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Based on coronary angiography results, the patients were divided into two groups: with or without verified hemodynamically significant constriction of coronary arteries (HSCCA). Judgments about vegetative nervous functions were derived from cardiac rhythm variation analyzed according to P. M. Bayevskiy under basal conditions and upon cold stress. The parameters of vascular endothelial functions assessed in the study included circulating endothelial cell counts, blood nitric oxide metabolites, blood Willebrand factor, and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. It was found that, in patients having no HSCCA, vegetative dysfunctions manifested as signs of increased sympathetic and parasympathetic tone were more pronounced. We suggest that one of the mechanisms of ACS development in such patients may involve interactions between the vegetative nervous system and the endothelium, which result in sustained vasospasm.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):35-40
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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE INCIDENCES OF ACUTE CEREBRAL CIRCULATORY DISORDERS AND OF HELIOMAGNETIC FACTORS IN PEOPLE LIVING IN FOOTHILL AREAS
Belyayeva V.A.
Abstract
In order to study the influence of heliomagnetic factors on the incidences of acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ACCD) with account of gender, a retrospective analysis of ACCD case histories filed at Vladikavkaz Regional Clinical Hospital was carried out. The case histories relate to the period 2001 to 2005, which follows the maximum of the 23rd cycle of solar activity. The analysis of daily incidences of ACCD as they relate to the geliomagnetic activity was performed using a dedicated database including 1285 cases (702 male and 583 female subjects). The factors taken into account included the average daily planetary index geomantic activity (GA), the DST index, the Bx-component of interplanetary magnetic field, the density of solar radiation at 10.5 cm wavelength (s. r. f.), and sunspots number. It was found that on the days when GA was >16, the daily number of ACCD patients admitted to the hospital was 1,16±0,07, whereas when GA was >16, the number was 0,72±0,03. The odds ratio was 1,6. It is concluded that increases in heliomagnetic activity are associated with increases in ACCD incidence, there being a gender-related specificity in ACCD case distribution. The most significant predicting factors were GA, sunspots number, the density of solar radiation, and the Bz-component of interplanetary magnetic field.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):41-47
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COMPARATIVE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ERGOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF METAPROT, TREKREZAN AND POLYOXIDONIUM AND THEIR COMBINATIONS IN BRONCHOPULMONARY INFLAMMATION IN RATS
Zarubina V.V., Mokrenko E.V., Bolekhan A.V., Shabanov P.D.
Abstract
In the paper, the anti-inflammatory and energy stabilizing (ergotropic) actions of antihypoxants with immune modulating properties metaprot (25 mg/kg), trekrezan (25 mg/kg) and polyoxidonium (0,75 mg/kg) were compared in rats with bronchopulmonary inflammation. In bronchopulmonary inflammation due to administration of turpentine into trachea of rats, all three drugs after course administration (5 days) possessed energy stabilizing effect that performed in the decrease of lactate and ATP-ADP and AMP products level as well as the increase of pyruvate and ATP in both blood lymphocytes and the lung tissue. The energy stabilizing action of polyoxidonium was more expressed in the lung tissue, the action was the same as after trekrezan administration in direction but was less powerful. The monotherapy of experimental bronchopulmonary inflammation revealed the following regularity in energy stabilizing (ergotropic) action of drugs: polyoxidonium<trekrezan<metaprot<metaprot+polyoxidonium=metaprot+trekrezan трекрезан (in the order of increase). Metaprot in controversy with trekrezan, polyoxidonium and their combinations, strengthened fluorescence of flavoproteids and decreased fluorescence of recovered pyridine dinucleotides in alveolar macrophages and blood lymphocytes of rats that indicated on increase of tissue breath intensity in cells.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):48-56
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A SYSTEMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE CENTRAL HEMODYNAMICS AND MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTILITY IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY DISEASES CAUSED BY FIBROGENIC AEROSOLS
Babanov S.A., Budash D.S.
Abstract
The paper reports on the results of studies of heart conditions, in particular, the functions of its right and left segments, in patients with the first and second stage chronic dust bronchitis, silicosis, and pneumoconiosis caused by aerosols produced by welding.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):57-63
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THE GENETIC MARKERS OF MALIGNANT GLIOMAS
Kartashev A.V., Yakubovich E.I.
Abstract
Advances in genomic technologies provide for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the development of gliomas. The current classification of gliomas is based on their histological features and does not account of the molecular differences between the subtypes of gliomas. High-throughput methods of molecular analysis make it possible to distinguish such subtypes and to suggest novel prognostic criteria. Key genetic alterations having clinical significance reviewed in the present paper include mutations in the genes CIC, FUBP1, IDH1 /IDH2, and ATRX and in TERT gene promoter and 1p/19q co-deletion. These markers may be used in a more accurate classification of gliomas suitable for clinical assessments and therapeutic choices.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):64-74
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THE ANTITUMOR EFFECT OF EXPRESSION PLASMID BEARING DUSP9 GENE IN SHR MICE HAVING SOLID EHRLICH CARCINOMA
Granov A.M., Vershinina S.F., Yakubovich Y.I., Markochev A.B., Yevtushenko V.I.
Abstract
SHR mice with Ehrlich carcinoma were used to assess the effects of administration of a newly developed plasmid DNA construct bearing DUSP9 gene. The construct has been found to inhibit Ehrlich tumor growth by promoting necrosis. The administration of the construct has been shown to decrease the prophase index suggesting the attenuation of Ehrlich tumor malignancy.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):75-81
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CHIMERIC PROTEINS BASED ON THE IMMUNOGENIC EPITOPES OF STREPTOCOCCUS SURFACE PATHOGENICITY FACTORS AS VACCINES FOR GROUP B STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
Filimonova V.Y., Dukhovlinov I.V., Kramskaya T.A., Leont’eva G.F., Grabovskaya K.B., Suvorov A.N.
Abstract
Developing vaccines against group B streptococci (GBS), which take a significant share in the prevalence of human infections, is a priority for medical biology. The objective of the present work was to assess the immunogenic and protective properties of four original chimeric recombinant peptide vaccines designed by combing the immunodominant fragments of GBS surface proteins Bac, C5a peptidase, ScaAB, CspA, and SspB1. The hybrid molecules were constructed using several technologies including the chemical synthesis of full-size DNA molecules and their cloning in expression vectors followed by protein expression in effective producer cells. Mice were used to compare the immunogenicity and post-vaccination protection afforded by the vaccines. All protein constructs were found to be immunogenic; however, they differed in their abilities to evoke immune responses against GBS and to protect against model infection.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):82-89
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RELATIONS BETWEEN COMPONENTS OF ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS IN TIEN SHAN HIGHLAND INHABITANTS
Sadykova G.S., Dzhunusova G.S.
Abstract
Extreme environmental conditions are of special importance for the ecological studies of adaptation of humans to different natural and climatic conditions. Long term dwelling under extreme conditions is stressful and decreases the reserve of the endocrine system available for coping with adverse environmental conditions. The purpose of the present work was to study the conditions of the pituitary, thyroid, and sex glands and their relationships under stressful highland conditions. Blood levels of the pituitary hormones adre-nocorticotrophic factor and thyrotrophic factor, the adrenocortical hormone cortisol, the thyroid hormones thyroxin and triiodothy-ronin, the sex hormone testosterone, and the adrenal medullar catecholamine hormones were determined using immunoenzyme and fluorimetric techniques. In highlanders dwelling at 3600 meters above sea level, cortisol and ACTH are reduced evidencing a dec- reased activity of the pituitary-adrenal systems and, correspondingly, a more sparing way of body functioning. This is confirmed by decreased noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin levels in people who live long under highland conditions. Increased TTH, T4 and noradrenaline in association with relatively low T3 may be a response to cold. Decreased testosterone in men and women suggests that the reserve capacities of the endocrine system have been mobilized and thus are restricted. The results show contrasting responses of endocrine glands to highland hypoxia. The mode and extent of the resulting rearrangements depend on the level of hypoxia and is determined by interrelationships between hormones. The endocrine system, as a base of forming the physiological and structural features of the body, ensures the specificity of protective response to highland stress by coherent integration of the functions of different regulatory systems, hormone playing the role of mediators between their central and peripheral components. The data expand and deepen the available knowledge about the endocrine mechanisms of adaptive responses of humans to different environmental factors and may be useful for defining the regional norms of human health relevant to highlands.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):90-96
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HOW CAN LIMITED RESOURCES BE UTILIZED WHEN HIV EPIDEMIC IS ON THE RISE
Belyakov N.A., Rassokhin V.V., Konovalova N.V.
Abstract
The report presents an analysis of the main problems met by Russian medicine in treating HIV patients. Obstacle in controlling HIV epidemic include injection drug use, increasing HIV prevalence in a number of regions, and high mortality rates among HIV patients despite HAART provided to them. The lifespans of HIV patients treated or untreated with HAART are comparable because of delayed HIV diagnoses and therapy onsets, psychoactive drug abuse, comorbid conditions, poor adherence to therapeutic regimens, obsolete therapeutic approaches, and low quality of therapeutic drugs. The scope of and expenses for HAART are increasing faster in the world than in Russia, where the main problem is still the lack of sufficient funds for laboratory support and drug provision for HAART. Some comments on several governmental bodies in charge of planning HIV-related medical, financial and human resources are given, and examples of different attitudes to the problem ranging from adequate to inadequate understanding and to the refusal to understand it at all are provided. Comprehensive approaches are needed to implement the most urgent medico-social, preventive and therapeutic programs able to control the second wave of HIV epidemic in Russia.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):97-100
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GENRIKh ALEKSANDROVICh SOFRONOV (k 80-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya)
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Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):101-102
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DIVERSITY OF HIV-1 RECOMBINANT FORMS IN RUSSIA AND THE FORMER USSR
Laga V., Kazennova E., Bobkova M.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):103-104
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AFSU HIV-1 VARIANTS CIRCULATING IN IDUs AND HETEROSEXUAL POPULATIONS
Lebedev A., Kazennova E., Bobkova M.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):105-106
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HPV-ASSOCIATED CERVICAL LESIONS AMONG RUSSIAN HIV-INFECTED WOMEN IN ST. PETERSBURG
Martirosyan M.M., Niauri D.A., Stepanova E.V.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):107-108
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RISK OF OVERDOSE AND HIV DISEASE PROGRESSION IN OPIOID DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS RECEIVING ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND PREVENTIVE NALTREXONE TREATMENT
Palatkin V., Blokhina E., Yaroslavtseva T., Vetrova M., Zvartau E., Krupitsky E.M.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):109-110
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EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS VIRAL LOAD IN HIV-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOMAS
Semenova T., Germi R., Lupo J., Botvinkin A.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):111-115
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SOME ASPECTS OF THE HIV REPLICATION INHIBITORS DESIGN: DEPOT FORMS AND NEW ACYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE ANALOGUES
Solyev P.N., Yasko M.V., Karpenko I.L., Kukhanova M.K.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):116-117
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EXAMINATION OF INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN HIV-INFECTED PERSON WITH HEAVY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
Yaroslavtseva T., Blokhina E., Krupitsky E.M., Kaku S., Gnatienko N., Palatkin V., Toussova O., Vetrova M., Cheng D.M., Samet J.H., Matt F., Zvartau E.E., Lioznov D.A.
Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):118-119
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PRAVILA OFORMLENIYa STATEY
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Medical academic journal. 2016;16(3):120-120
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