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Vol 18, No 2 (2018)

Articles

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF THE PULMONARY VENOUS HYPERTENSION

Evlakhov V.I., Poyassov I.Z., Ovsyannikov V.I.

Abstract

In the review regulatory mechanisms of functions of pulmonary venous vessels have been considered as well as the signifi cance of their impairment in the development of the pulmonary hypertension, caused by the left ventricular cardiac failure. One of the trigger mechanisms of the development of the pulmonary hypertension as a result of the elevation of the left atrial and pulmonary venous pressure is the reflectory constriction of the pulmonary arterioles (Kitayev’s reflex). Further, the development of endothelial dysfunction and pulmonary vessels remodeling with the phenomenon of “arterializations” of the pulmonary veins take place. The exact evaluation of the pulmonary vascular resistance value in the clinical practice is a difficult task. This parameter, being integrated, does not allow to evaluate the resistance values of pulmonary arterial and venous vessels in the conditions of pulmonary hypertension and to give exact characteristics of their changes, as a result. The mechanisms of development of the pulmonary venous hypertension could not be explicated using the simplified model of the pulmonary vasoconstriction, because the main features of the pulmonary circulation are the presence of arteriovenous and bronchopulmonary shunts, and pulsatile character of the blood flow. To understand the exact pathogenesis of this pathology the further fundamental investigation not only on the cell level, but also on organ and system levels are needed.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):7-18
pages 7-18 views

FULLERENECARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND PROSPECTS FOR THEIR USE IN THE CHEMISTRY OF DRUGS

Litasova E.V., Piotrovskiy L.B.

Abstract

Among the various derivatives of fullerenes, compounds containing carboxyl groups (carboxyfullerenes) occupy a prominent place. The reason is that the introduction of carboxyl groups makes it possible to obtain water-soluble derivatives of highly lipophilic fullerenes. The review deals with matters of synthesis and structure of carboxyfullerenes, the influence of the amount and structure of the addends on the solubility of the entire compound, various aspects of the usage of these compounds as independent biologically active substances and carriers for creation of various delivery systems.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):19-28
pages 19-28 views

MULTIFOCAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IS ONE OF THE MAJOR RISK FACTORS THAT ACCELERATES THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACUTE CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS

Prudnikov A.R., Shchupakova A.N.

Abstract

The literary review is devoted to the role of multifocal atherosclerosis (MFA) in the development of acute cardiovascular events. The data on prevalence and different methods of multifocal atherosclerosis diagnosis are presented. A piece of information about the existing prognostic scales of progress of adverse coronary events for a certain period of time is given. It is proposed to include non-coronary atherosclerosis in prognostic scales to increase their predictive power.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):29-42
pages 29-42 views

BIOACOUSTIC PRECONDITIONING OF SEVERE PSYCHOGENIC TRAUMA

Avaliani T.V., Bykova A.V., Klyueva N.N., Apraksina N.K., Tsikunov S.G.

Abstract

Rat vital stress causes severe behavioral disorders and changes in the lipid spectrum of blood serum. The pur pose of this study is to develop a method of preconditioning to reduce post-stress disorders. The essence of this method consists in listening by an animal to an electrocorticogram of a congener recorded during the experience of vital stress and converted into sounds of the musical range. Sessions of bioacoustic exposure significantly reduce gross behavioral disorders and prevent changes in the lipid spectrum with subsequent vital stress.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):43-47
pages 43-47 views

REMOTE ISCHEMIC PRE- AND POSTCONDITIONING ABOLISHED DELAYED HIF-1a EXPRESSION IN THE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS ALONGSIDE WITH THE CORRECTION OF EXPERIMENTAL POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER

Baranova K.A., Rybnikova E.A.

Abstract

Aims of the study. To examine effects of remote ischemic pre- and postconditioning which prevents development of the experimental post-traumatic s tress disorder (PTSD) in rats on the dynamics of expression of regulatory a-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1a) in hippocampus. Materials and methods. Using immunohistochemistry method, the level of HIF-1a immunoreactivity has been quantitatively assessed in the hippocampus of animals exposed to stressors in the “traumatic stress-restress” paradigm, and by using the three-time remote limb ischemia which prevented the formation of anxiety pathology in this model. Results. Development of the PTSD-like pathology in rats was accompanied by considerable and persistent (up to 10 days after restress) up-regulation of HIF-1a immunoreactivity level in the CA1 field and dentate gyrus of hippocampus. Conditioning remote ischemia applied before traumatic stress (preconditioning) or following restress (postconditioning) did not affect early post-stress induction of HIF-1a (the first day) but abolished the delayed overexpression of this factor (5-10 days). Conclusions. The data obtained support our recent hypothesis on the pathogenic role of increased HIF-1 factor activity for the development of stress-related anxiety and depressive disorders within the delayed time-period. This also gives evidence to the fact that normalization of delayed violations of HIF-1a expression is obviously the key link of stress-protective effects of remote ischemic conditioning.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):48-53
pages 48-53 views

PECULARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF REASSORTANT STRAINS FOR LIVE INFLUENZA VACCINE BASED ON VIRUSES WITH PANDEMIC POTENTIAL

Larionova N.V., Kiseleva I.V., Doroshenko E.M., Rudenko L.G.

Abstract

Objective of the research: to characterize the effectiveness of obtaining reassortant strains for live influenza vaccine based on pandemic and potentially pandemic influenza viruses which are new for humans. Materials and methods of the research: influenza virus A(H1N1)pdm09, potentially pandemic A(H3N2)v and A(H5N1) influenza viruses, a master donor virus for the Russian live influenza vaccine. Virological and molecular genetics methods of research. Results: strains with a 6:2 genome composition for live influenza reassortant vaccine based on the pandemic '(H1N1)pdm09 virus and swine influenza A(H3N2)v virus have been successfully obtained. The reassortment of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses A(H5N1) and human A(H2N2) master donor virus for live attenuated influenza vaccine is complicated by the features of the constellation of their genes. H5N2 reassortants which inherited only HA gene from HPAI viruses of avian influenza were obtained. Despite the impossibility of development of 6:2 reassortants, the phenotypic, preclinical characteristics of the reassortants with the 7:1 genome composition, and their further clinical studies on volunteers have shown that such vaccine strains can be successfully used to prevent diseases caused by avian influenza viruses. Conclusion. When vaccine strains against potentially pandemic influenza viruses are obtained by the classical reassortment technique then the success depends on the mutual constellation of genes of phylogenetically distant far apart parental viruses. In some cases the inheritance by the reassortant of a single HA gene from the antigenic actual virus can be a compromise for LAIV development.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):54-62
pages 54-62 views

NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH ESSENTIAL TREMOR, PARKINSONS DISEASE AND THE COMBINATION OF ESSENTIAL TREMOR AND PARKINSONS DISEASE

Kudrevatykh A.V., Didur M.D., Sergeev T.V., Bug D.S., Miliukhina I.V.

Abstract

Aim of the study: to assess non-motor symptoms and quality of life in patients with essential tremor (ET), different stages of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and combination of ET and PD (ET-PD). Materials and methods of the research: We examined 82 patients with ET, 20 patients with ET-PD, 283 patients with PD, and 72 neurologically healthy volunteers. The neuropsychological status, intensity of motor symptoms, the grade of vegetative dysfunction and dyssomnia, and quality of life of patients were assessed. Results: Patients with ET showed wide range of nonmotor symptoms. The severity of cognitive impairment in group of patients with ET corresponded with the same severity of patients with early stages of PD. It is interesting that patients with ET showed more severe depression than patients with early stages of PD. The maximum severity of anxiety-depressive disorders was observed in patients with the combination of ET-PD. Conclusion: In spite of the fact that it is usual to consider the ET as a monosymptomatic benign disease, we have found significant non-motor disorders in this group of patients and a significant violation of the quality of life. The results of the study also give evidence that patients with ET-PD represent a special group of patients, characterized by special, both motor and non-motor symptoms. The data we obtained made it possible to form a deeper understanding of the generality of the clinical manifestations of ET, PD and ET-PD, which will make it possible to improve the quality of management of patients with these nosologies in clinical practice.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):63-71
pages 63-71 views

CIRCULATING NEUTROPHIL EXTRACELLULAR TRAPS IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS WITH SUPPURATIVE AND NECROTIC COMPLICATIONS

Maximov D.I., Basyreva L.Y., Gusev A.A., Vakhrusheva T.V., Yaskevich A.V., Gusev S.A., Ostrovsky E.M., Panasenko O.M., Sergienko V.I.

Abstract

Aim of the study. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been reported to participate in many pathological processes, which points at NET concentration in blood as an important indicator of the body condition. When studying NETs, their blood concentration is usually evaluated indirectly, which has a number of shortcomings. We aimed to measure directly the amount of NETs as integral structures, using blood smears as a most suitable tool for clinical practice, and to carry out measurements of NET levels in blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with necrotic suppurative complications to elucidate the usefulness of this assay. Materials and methods of the research. NETs were quantified by counting in standardized blood smears stained with Romanovsky dyes. Results. The mean level of circulating NETs in the blood of patients was higher than that in healthy subjects. Blood NET concentration in healthy persons and patients with high levels of NETs increased as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration increased in the blood. In other patients, NET concentration decreased as HbAlc increased. Elevated NET levels and a direct correlation between NETs and HbAlc were observed in patients with phlegmon, large-area infected wound, lower leg gangrene, suppurative mediastinitis. In other patients, the prevailing lesions were infected wounds, abscesses, finger gangrene. Conclusion. This pilot study demonstrated the usefulness of measurement (using blood smear) of circulating NET concentration in the blood as a clinical parameter that would help to estimate patient’s condition, to predict the duration of post-surgical wound healing and the probability of complications in the form of thrombosis in T2DM.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):72-77
pages 72-77 views

PHYSIOLOGICAL BASICS OF CARDIORESPIRATORY BIOFEEDBACK CONTROL OF OSCILLATORY POSTURAL LOAD

Suvorov N.B., Sergeev T.V., Yarmosh I.V.

Abstract

The technology of functional normalization of the cardiovascular system parameters by means of the alternating biofeedback on cardiac rhythm (cardiorespiratory training) with the use of a turning bed (verticalizer) is described, which allows to implement the oscillatory postural effects of ortho- and antiorthostatic nature automatically. Aim of the study. Increasing of application area of cardiorespiratory training due to the variety of options for biofeedback signals. Methods. The oscillation of the turning bed controlled by means of the parameters of heart rate variability sets for the examinee the order of alternation of the inspiration and expiration phases and the phases of the inspiration/expiration beginning. The method is available to patients with low vision, bedridden patients, early ages children; patients who are not able to understand the essence of the procedure. Results of researches. Positive dynamics of the test subjects’ functional state is, in particular, the normalization of activity of components of the autonomic nervous system; the reinstatement of the natural breathing pattern lost due to various reasons; increasing the variability of the heart rate; the cardiovascular system training due to moderate alternating ortho- and antiorthostatic load, estimated by number of physiological parameters.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):78-88
pages 78-88 views

EVALUATION OF THE DATA OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATMENT OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION BY THE METHOD OF INTEGRATION OF ANGIOGENESIS INHIBITORS INTO THE BACK SUBTENON SPACE ON THE VISCOUS MEDIA

Gaybaryan R.V., Epikhin A.N., Epikhina U.N., Bondarenko U.F., Epikhin N.A.

Abstract

Aim of the research. Study of clinical efficacy of treatment of wet form of age-related macular degeneration by using the method of introduction of the inhibitor of angiogenesis into the back s ubtenon s pace on the viscous media. Material and methods of the study. The first group (main group) included 41 patients (43 eyes) with wet form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). All patients in this group were injected in the back subtenon space 7.5-12.5 mg of an angiogenesis inhibitor on a viscous medium (1.0 ml of 2% solution of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose). The second group (control group) consisted of 30 patients (30 eyes) with wet form of AMD, for this group a retrospective analysis of dynamics of morpho-functional indices after intravitreal injections of angiogenesis inhibitors according to standard methods (1.25 mg) was carried out. The observance time period amounted to 12 months. Results. When comparing the effectiveness of treatment, the mean best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly in both groups after treatment. Also, according to data of the optical coherence tomography (OCT), the mean central retinal thickness (CRT), the extent, height of pathological changes, the area of the pathological focus and the relative volume of the pathological focus were significantly reduced as a result of treatment. No significant differences were found between the groups (all p>0.05). In accordance with results of the evaluation, the effect duration at subtenon method of administrations amounted to 2-2.5 months, at intravitreal method it amounted to 1-1.5 months. The number of administrations in the 12 months of observation in the main group amounted to 2.8 injections per patient on average, and in the control group it amounted to 4.2 injections. Conclusion: Subtenon injections of the inhibitor of angiogenesis into the back subtenon space gives the positive effect in the treatment of wet form of age-related macular degeneration, and its application on viscous medium has a prolonged effect.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):89-95
pages 89-95 views

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE OF CARDIAC PATIENTS

Mikhaylova L.V., Romanova E.M., Dobrynina U.A.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the functional state of the kidneys in patients with cardiological profile. Material and methods: a retrospective analysis of 208 case histories of patients discharged from the 1st and 2nd cardiological departments of the State Budgetary Healthcare Institution Regional Kaliningrad Clinical Hospital was conducted, 110 of them (53%) were men and 98 (47%) were women. The average age of the patients was 63 (56.0, 71.0) years. To evaluate the kidney function, a calculation method for determining GFR using the formula CKD-EPI in ml/min/1.73 m2 was used. Results: It was revealed that more than a third of cardiological patients without diagnosed kidney diseases have signs of renal dysfunction in the form of CKD 1-3 stages. CKD stage 3 was relatively more common in patients with arrhythmias on the background of organic myocardial lesions. The functional state of the kidneys worsens with an increase in functional class angina pectoris and CHF; all patients with CHF III-IV FC included in the study had signs of CKD 2-3 stages. The statistical dependence of the functional state of the kidneys on the presence / stage of hypertension, the presence of IHD, type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia was not revealed.
Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):96-100
pages 96-100 views

75 LET ALEKSANDRU VLADIMIROVIChU ShABROVU

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Medical academic journal. 2018;18(2):101-102
pages 101-102 views

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