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Vol 10, No 2 (2010)

Articles
The role of naturally occurring regulatory CD4 +CD25 + T-cell subpopulation in the normal state and in various diseases
Akinfleva O.V., Bubnova L.N.
Abstract
Naturally occurring regulatory CD4 +CD25 + T cells (Treg cells) play a crucial role in the maintenance of normal immunohomeostasis.T reg cells suppress the activity of effector T cells thus taking part in the prevention of the development of autoimmune processes, whereas the inhibition of Treg cells activity can lead to the manifestation of severe or even fatal autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. It has been shown that CD4 +CD25 +Treg cells play an important role in the suppression of graft-versus-host reaction, in the prevention of the development of allergic disorders and in the suppression of immune response to opportunistic pathogens. In patients with malignant neoplasms T reg cells inhibit the productive immune response against tumor.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):5-16
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Segmental anatomic brainstem structures involved in the development of headache
Sokolov A.Y., Ignatov Y.D.
Abstract
The review provides information on anatomic and physiological characteristics of nervous structures involved in the development of headache. Particular attention is given to the trigeminal complex, structural and functional organization of its peripheral and central components. The connections between trigeminal nuclei and several brainstem structures in aspect of their involvement in the pathogenesis of cephalalgia are examined. The general properties of neurons of the trigemino-cervical complex and afferent fibers of the trigeminal nerve branches are characterized.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):17-31
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Recombinant vaccines and probiotics as possible means of protection from streptococcal infections
Suvorov A.N., Leontjeva L.F., Ermolenko E.I., Grabovskaya K.B., Meringova L.F., Koroleva I.V., Duplik N.V., Gupalova T.V., Korzhueva A.S., Eliseev F.V., Bochkareva A.N., Totolyan A.A.
Abstract
Streptococcal diseases are important human pathogens requiring search for new approaches for treatment and prophylactics. Recombinant streptococcal vaccine based on the mixture of the immunogenic surface expressed proteins had been developed. It was shown that the vaccine as mixture of three peptides Вас, ScaAB and ScpB is immunogenic and provides protection against streptococci. Recently it was suggested to add the forth component - adherence protein SspBI. In this case vaccine protects not only against group В streptococcus but group A streptococcus and pneumococci. In parallel the approach based on usage of lactic acid bacteria - probiotics antagonistic to streptococci was evaluated. The probiotic strains able to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from the organism of laboratory animals were selected.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):32-39
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Bela2-microglobuline amyloidosis: Fibrillogenesis of natural and recombinant human beta2-microglobulines
Poyakov D.S., Grudinina N.A., Solovyov K.V., Egorov V.V., Sirotkin A.K., Aleinicova T.D., Totolian A.A., Shavlovsky M.M.
Abstract
Β2-Microglobulin ( β2М) is noncovalently associated with alpha chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex. The protein is removed from blood by degradation in the proximal tubule of the kidney. β2M cannot be removed from the blood by the kidney or the dialysis membrane in patients undergoing haemodialysis. As a consequence of increased β2M concentrations, partial unfolding of β2M is believed to be prerequisite to its assembly into β2M amyloid fibrils. β2M amyloidosis is a common complication associated with long-term hemodialysis. Mechanism of fibril formation in physiological conditions is poorly understood. Simulation in vitro is required for elucidation of its mechanism and for searching after factors that can induce or inhibit fibrillogenesis. For these purpose we have devised the method to obtain β2M from dialysate of patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. We have constructed expression plasmid for production of recombinant human β2M in E.coli with subsequent fast and easy purification. Recombinant fusion protein of β2M with green fluorescent protein was also produced. These recombinant proteins do not form inclusion bodies and can be extracted directly from the cell lysate. Electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have shown presence of fibrils formed in vitro from the three β2M variants. Using thioflavin-T binding we have determined that β2M purified from dialysate and recombinant β2M can form amyloid fibrils.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):40-49
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Defensive effects of polyprenols in a model of subacute hepatosis with encephalopathy in rats
Shabanov P.D., Sultanov V.S., Lebedev A.A., Bychkov E.R., Proshin S.N.
Abstract
Ropren is 95% concentrate of polyprenols, it is produced from needles of pine and fir trees, it is recommended as a hepatoprotective drug of plant origin. The aim of the paper was to assess hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects of ropren in a model of subacute hepatosis induced by in CCI 4 rats. A subacute hepatosis (dystrophy of the liver) was modeled in rats by means of 2-fold i.p. administration of CCI 4 (2 injections of 1 g/kg with the interval of 3 days). Ropren (2.15-4.3- 11.6 mg/kg) was injected i.p. within 2 weeks. After course of ropren administration, the behavior of rats, biochemical indexes of the blood, morphology of the liver and turnover of monoamines in the brain were studied. The drug of comparison was heptral, or ademethionine (300 mg/kg). Administration of hepatotropic poison CCI 4 led to 50% letality of rats. The significant shifts of behavior in open field, elevated plus maze, intruder-resident and Porsolt's tests were registered in survived rats. In the serum blood of rats decapitated on 16th day, the signs of damage of the liver, pancreatic gland and kidney were observed. The histological study revealed the experimental hepatosis (dystrophy of the liver) which was characterized with gialin-dropped protein dystrophy, little-dropped fat dystrophy and slight lymphocyte infiltration of portal ways. There were not changes in turnover of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in the n.accumbens, striatum and frontal cortex of the brain after administration of CCI 4. In different tests, ropren (2.15-4.3-11.6 mg/kg) normalized behavior disturbed by administration of CCI 4, improved blood and liver indexes in rats with subacute hepatosis and acted as psychostimulant on the brain, changing the activity of mesolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic system (activation of dopamine turnover in the n.accumbens and decrease of it in the striatum). In behavioral tests, the maximal activity of ropren was registered in low (2.15 mg/kg) and middle (4.3 mg/kg) doses whereas the maximal hepatoprotective effect was observed in dose 11.6 mg/kg.The latter was the same as after administration of heptral (300 mg/kg). Heptral did not reveal practically the central effects. Therefore, ropren possesses significant hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects in a large scale of doses.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):50-57
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Speciation and intraspecies adaptive radiation of causative agent of plague -microbe Yersinia pestis as a gradual evolutionary process
Suntsov V.V., Suntsova N.I.
Abstract
In the last two decades the questions of origin and evolution of the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis have become a prerogative of molecular genetics and are mostly addressed in terms of horizontal gene transfer. However, it is impossible to build genealogical trees of any taxons employing only molecular genetics methods. Here, we describe an ecological genetic scenario of plague pathogen origin and evolution. Using the knowledge of many classical biological sciences, we elucidate the principles and structure of gradual evolutionary species formation. The suggested scenario of plague pathogen origin and evolution is in good agreement with the principles of modern Darwinism as a synthetic theory of evolution.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):58-63
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Multifactor assessment of the presens and the grade of manifestation of atrophic gastritis
Sidorkin A.O.
Abstract
Based on the results of the multivariate correlation and regression analysis of different morphometric parameters relevant to the examination of the antrum and body of the stomach mucosa, regression equations have been developed which allow calculation of the indices which may be used for objective assessment of the presence/absence of the mucosa atrophy and the grade of its manifestation.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):64-68
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Fronto-occipital ratio of independent components of electroencephalogram as quantitative screening test of traumatic disease flowing
Belyakov N.A., Gurskaya O.E., Ponomarev V.A., Trofimova T.N., Nazinkina U.V.
Abstract
The results of ICA (Independent Component Analysis) and LORETA (Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography of brain) analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in posttraumatic prolonged unconscious states showed sharply increased power of independent components EEG in the frontal lobes and decreased power of independent components EEG in occipital and parietal lobes of the brain compared with healthy subjects. Our studies showed that the relative measure is more sensitive to basic pathological tendencies electrogenesis in patients in post-traumatic vegetative state and status of small-consciousness, in spite of high inter-individual variability of the EEG. A relative quantitative measure - fronto-occipital ratio of power of independent components of EEG may serve as quantitative screening test flow of traumatic disease.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):69-76
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The enzymes of the purine metabolism in the differentiation of gout arthritis and osteoarthrosis
Zborovsky A.B., Bedina S.A., Martemjanov V.F., Mozgovaya E.E., Kukushcina E.V., Stazharov M.Y., Gerusov Y.I., Evdocimova E.V.
Abstract
The activity of Adenosin Deaminase (ADA), Adenosin Monophosphate Deaminase (AMPDA), Adenin Deaminase (AD), Guanin Deaminase (GDA), Guanosin Deaminase (GSDA), Guanosin phosphorylase (GP) and Purin Nucleosid Phosphorylase (PNP) were studies in lysates of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and plasma of the blood of 52 patients with osteoarthrosis (OA), 32 patients with gout arthritis (GA) and 30 healthy people. While analyzing the enzyme indices in the lysates of erythrocytes, lymphocytes and in plasma of the blood of healthy people we didn't find out their dependence on the age and sex. The change of the activity of the enzymes depended on the clinical peculiarities of the diseases and were most of all vivid at the development of synovitis in the patients with OA and with the cronical stage of GA.The results of the comparative studies of the activity of the enzymes of Purine metabolism in the three biological media revealed the essential enzyme differences in the blood of the patients with OA and GA.The indices of the activity of AD in plasma, GDA in the erythrocytes and GP in the lymphocytes were the most evident in the differentiation of OA and GA.They are recommended to use in the clinical practice.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):77-83
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The influence of different doses of isoniazid at the time of sputum smear conversion among patients with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis
Maryandyshev A.O., Andreeva O.A., Perhin D.V., Chichurina E.N., Mironuk O.M., Nikishova E.I.
Abstract
The main aim of our study was to estimate the influence of different doses of isoniazid 5 and 10 mg/kg in the combination with the other antituberculosis drugs at the time of sputum smear conversion among patients with drug-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. We carried out cohort prospective study of 77 patients with new cases of tuberculosis or relapse. The patients received treatment in the 3 department of the Regional Clinical ТВ Dispensary, Arkhangelsk, since April, 2008 till Aprill, 2009. A comparative analysis on 2 regimens of antituberculosis treatment was carried out. It included: rifampicin (10 mg/kg), pirazinamid (30 mg/kg), etambutol (25 mg/kg) and isoniazid 5 mg/kg (group 1) or 10 mg/kg (group 2). At the end of the intensive phase of treatment intoxication and clinical manifestations disappeared in all the patients of group 1 and group 2. The mean time from the initiation of appropriate therapy to sputum smear conversion in two groups were approximately the same (Me=3,00, Q1=1,00, Q3=8,50 и Me=3,00, Q1=1,00, Q3=7,00).The patients from group 1 and group 2 had the same rates of sputum smear conversion at the 1 week (RR=0,938, 95%Ci=0,468-1,635) and at the 1 month of treatment (RR=1,036, 95%CI=0,741-1,447). By the end of the intensive phase (3 month) 35 (79,8%) patients from groupl and 30 (90,9%) patients of group 2 have converted by smear (RR=0,875,95%C1=0,727-1,052). By the end of intensive phase all patients reached sputum culture conversion and had positive radiological changes. The patients in both groups, where different doses of isoniazid (5 and 10 mg/kg) in the combination with other antituberculosis drugs were used, demonstrated a high effectiveness of treatment. No statistically significant differences in the time of sputum smear conversion in both groups were found.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):84-90
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Planning of radiation therapy with use various types of MLQ-models
Molchanova E.V., Nilva S.E.
Abstract
Purpose. The work is devoted to creating and application of various types of a modified linear-quadratic mathematical models (MLQ-models) for determination of tissues complication probability (TCP) in tissues depending on conditions of therapy and volume of the irradiated organ or tissue. Material and methods. We have used the LQ-model, model of Klepper, logistical function of distribution (two variants), distribution of Koshi and the extreme value for calculation TCP. We have been determined parameters of models for a different tissues on the basis of the systematized clinical supervision forTCP=5- and 50% and relative volumes of the irradiated tissues: 1/3, 2/3,1. Results and conclusions. Five types of MLQ-models are developed, which unite (synthesis) the most perspective models of radiation therapy: LQ model and the modified of Weibull distribution (model of Klepper); LQ-model and logistical function of distribution (two variants); LQ-model and distribution of Koshi; LQ-model and distribution of extreme value. Parameters of MLQ- models are defined by means of special program system. Their analysis has shown that the MLQ-model allows to describe the systematised clinical data well. The offered models can be used in radiological clinic for planning of an irradiation of tissues.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):91-101
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Rehabilitation of persons with initial forms of cerebrovascular defeat
Antonen E.G., Zepkin V.V., Hanikainen I.V., Panzenko M.A.
Abstract
The clinical supervision of military men directed on revealing at them preclinical signs of initial displays of insufficiency of brain blood circulation, should be mass (opportunistic), screening stage-by-stage (selective), complex (with use cliniko- nejropsihologic and nejrophisioligic techniques) and adequate (carrying out of surveys, medical actions and measures on propagation of knowledge). In screening surveys decretive persons therapists is expedient to use «The Questionnaire on revealing of risk factors preclinical diseases» with «the Scale of a ball estimation of presence preclinical diseases», and to neurologists - «The Visually-analogue scale of a pain», Vayne's questionnaire and Hospital Scale of alarm and Depression. The treatment of these patients besides influence levelling corrected risk factors, characteristic for military men of Republic Kareliya (specificity of military service, alkoholization, stress, social problems), great value has the rational combination drugs with the account of the leading reason of diseases (somatic vegetative dysfunction - 35,2%).
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):102-107
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The remote results with the estimation of qulity of the life of the patients operated concerning complicated forms of the chronic pancreatitis
Evtihova E.J.
Abstract
The remote results of surgical treatment 181 sick of a chronic pancreatitis with an estimation of quality of a life on a scale of questionnaire SF - 36 are studied. The comparative analysis in 2 groups of patients with proximal pancreas resections (109 persons) and various draining interventions (72 persons) concerning the given disease is thus carried out. At a chronic pancreatitis with primary defeat of a head of a pancreas, expansion of the main pancreatic channel and compression the general bilious channel operation longitudinal pancreatojejunal - and choledochojejunalanastomosis had no good remote results. Performance gastroenteroanastomois at the chronic pancreatitis complicated by a compression of a duodenal gut and various biliodigestive anastomosis concerning a mechanical jaundice, caused compression the general bilious channel the increased head of a pancreas at a chronic pancreatitis have no good remote results. The received results testify to necessity of the differentiated approach to surgical treatment of a chronic pancreatitis.
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):108-113
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Klimov Anatoliy Nikolaevich on the 90 ,h anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):114-115
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Potashov Lev Vasiljevich on the 80"' anniversary
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):116-117
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LLAMAZYAN EDUARD KARPOVICH ON THE 70 LH ANNIVERSARY
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Abstract
Medical academic journal. 2010;10(2):118-119
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