Vol 36, No 3 (2017)

Articles
AUTOIMMUNOLOGY: NEW BRANCH OF MEDICINE
Churilov L.P., Shoenfeld Y.
Abstract
The article written by the co-chairmen of the First St. Petersburg Congress on Autoimmunity "Bridge between East and West", held in St. Petersburg State University June 30-July 2, 2017 describes this event and gives an overview of the main lectures and discussions during the Congress. The latest data on the role of diet, adjuvants, vaccines, viruses and microbiome, on genetic factors, stress, smoking, lifestyle, drugs - in etiology, as well as the role of lymphocytes, macrophages, various autoantibodies, complement and cytokines - in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of autoimmune diseases were discussed. The congress discussed their comorbidity, ways of treatment and prevention, markers, methodology and contribution of serological tests in the diagnosis and classification of autoimmune diseases. Current data on physiological autoimmunity, as well as the early predictive role of autoantibodies were described. The participants performed philosophical discussions about immunological concepts, and organizational discussions of the standardization of diagnostics and the principles of working with large databases, as applied to this field. The programme included Clinical Pathophysiology все of various autoimmune rheumatologic, psycho-neurological, endocrine, cardiovascular, obstetric-gynecological and many other diseases. The authors conclude that the rapid formation of Autoimmunology as a new integral medical branch happens nowadays (9 figs, bibliography: 69 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):3-14
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THE INFLUENCE OF MILITARY-PROFESSIONAL FACTORS ON HEALTH OF SPECIALISTS OF THE NAVY TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE CURRENT STATE AND THE PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF NAVAL THERAPY
Chumakov A.V., Cherkashin D.V.
Abstract
The service on Navy is associated with impact on seamen of various adverse factors of a physical, chemical, biological, social and psychological origin that promotes development in them of the professional caused pathology. The naval therapy is one of sections of naval medicine is engaged in the prevention, diagnostics and treatment of internal diseases on Navy in peace and a wartime. At department of naval therapy of Military Medical Academy (Russia) the special attention is paid to pathology of deep-sea specialists. In article are described the cases of diseases, the results of scientific research in this group of seamen. Are stated the offers concerning improvement of Navy's therapeutic providing in this and other current directions (4 figs., bibliography: 15 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):15-23
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RENDERING THE SURGICAL HELP BY THE SHIPS OF THE NAVY IN THE SEA
Soloviev I.A., Balura O.V.
Abstract
Experience and the increasing dynamics of application of endoscopic and endovideo surgical surgeries on surface ships of Navy is considered in the last decade. Modern low-invasive technologies considerably increase the level of rendering the surgical help in the sea, improve quality of treatment, promote bystreyshy recovery of seamen and their return to execution of the official duties. The case of performance of laparoscopic appendectomy by team of surgeons from Army medical college of S. M. Kirov is described during a fighting campaign in January, 2017. In the conditions of distant campaigns by the ships of Navy at urgent situations it is necessary to expand the volume of endovideosurgeries for improvement of result of treatment of the injured military personnel in the sea. Constant improvement of skills of regular doctors of the ship and the affiliated surgeons from military hospitals is necessary (1 figure, 1 table, bibliography: 7 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):24-27
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THE ROLE OF MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS IN PREVENTING SUDDEN DEATH AMONG MILITARY PERSONNEL
Voronin S.V., Tyrenko V.V., Cherkashin D.V., Bologov S.G.
Abstract
Objective. Stratify the risk of sudden cardiac death in the military, depending on the findings of the medical examination of cardiac rhythm and conduction disorders. Materials and methods. An analysis of medical documents of 254 servicemen, recognized by the military medical commission (therapeutic) profile of the S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy, that are limited to fit and not fit for military service, was conducted. Based on the classification of the risk of sudden cardiac death, proposed by R. Fogoros, the stratified military personnel were assessed for the risk of sudden cardiac death, based on the cardiac arrhythmias. Results of the study. According to the results of the work, it is shown that every third serviceman, recognized by the military medical commission as being limited to fit or not fit for military service, was recognized as such because of his cardiac arrhythmias and conduction. Only 13.2% of military personnel with cardiac rhythm and conduction disorders had a structurally normal heart. 51.8% of the surveyed military personnel with cardiac arrhythmias and conduction had a low risk of sudden death, 42.2% had an average risk of sudden cardiac death, and 6% had a high risk. Conclusion. The system of medical examination of servicemen based on the results of the survey allows stratification of military personnel in the risk of sudden cardiac death and, subject to this, make a legally meaningful decision on its category of fitness for military service (4 tables, bibliography: 8 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):28-33
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A NEW STRATEGY TO IMPROVE THE PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES IN THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Cherkashin D.V., Makiev R.G., Kirichenko P.Y., Alanichev A.E., Gornov V.V.
Abstract
We study the morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases in the Russian Federation and in the Armed Forces. Studied the advantages and disadvantages of a modern complex of measures for the prevention, early detection, treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels in the Armed Forces, as well as prevention strategies for cardiovascular diseases in the Russian Federation. Presents the stages and activities implemented strategies to increase effectiveness of prevention of cardiovascular disease in military personnel. The proposals for improving the early diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the armed forces, developed on the basis of the severity of factors influencing the risk of the development, prevalence and course of cardiovascular disease in military personnel (bibliography: 24 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):34-39
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PROBLEMS OF PREVENTION OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IN ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Tyrenko V.V., Ovchinnikov Y.V., Bologov S.G., Ignatev S.B., Kachnov V.A., Koltsov A.V.
Abstract
Currently, in connection with the development of methods for genetic studies, increased attention to the problem of sudden death and its prevention. The majority of stops cardiac activity occur without prior symptoms and is almost always fatal despite resuscitation. At a young age cause of sudden cardiac death often remains unclear even after autopsy, because some diseases, such as channelopathies, or drug-arrhythmia, not associated with any structural changes of the cardiovascular system and result in death in this age group. In recent years, technological progress in the field of genetics has facilitated the study of a large number of genes, which allowed to map several key genes with the reasons for the development of sudden cardiac death, which may allow the stratification of risk in young individuals based on the genetic data (2 figs, bibliography: 38 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):40-48
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MAGNETIC STIMULATION IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DISEASES AND INJURIES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Litvinenko I.V., Yurin A.A., Frunza D.N., Bodrova T.V.
Abstract
Magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive technique that allows you to directly stimulate the neurons of the cerebral cortex. Currently, transcranial magnetic stimulation is used as informative diagnostic and effective therapeutic techniques for the treatment of diseases and injuries of the nervous system. The article discusses the indications, contraindications and the recommended protocols for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in certain diseases and consequences of traumas of the nervous system (bibliography: 37 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):49-55
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METABOLIC DETERMINANTS OF IMMUNE REACTIVITY
Vologzhanin D.A., Khalimov Y.S.
Abstract
As a result of the study of the dynamics of nutritional and immune status in patients with severe trauma in the first 30 days of the posttraumatic period, the interrelations between the parameters of metabolism and the immune system were revealed and the predominant influence of a number of nutrients on the state of the various type of immune response was revealed. Data were obtained indicating the change in the need for immunonutrients at different times from the moment of injury. Prospective approaches to nutritional immunocorrection in patients with trauma, consisting in the differential use of separate nutrients at different period after trauma, have been identified (9 figs, bibliography: 9 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):56-63
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PERSPECTIVES OF USE OF MEDICINAL DRUGS IN PREFERRED SYRINGES
Golubenko R.A., Andreev O.N., Andreeeva O.G.
Abstract
The issue of the prospects of using prefilled syringes as a modern way of delivering drugs into the bloodstream and an innovative type of primary packaging at the same time is considered. A brief comparative characteristic of the form of parenteral medicinal products widely used in medical practice, including injectable solutions in ampoules, and also in syringes-tubes is given. It is noted that the improvement of this form of release is based on the need to minimize the risks associated with the contamination of the injection solution with the extemporal recruitment of the drug into the ampoule by medical personnel, as well as the risk of time deficit when it is necessary to provide assistance to the patient in the terminal state, the risk of damage during transportation. The reasons for introducing medicines into pre-filled syringes are introduced in the practice of military health care, the form of which meets the requirements of military medical supply (bibliography: 4 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):64-66
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CREATING OF ARTIFICIAL SKIN ANALOGUES BY 3D-BIOPRINTING
Peleshok S.A., Nagibovich O.A., Titova M.V., Protasov O.V.
Abstract
The full-thickness wounds and burns of skin remain the current health care issue, which requires treatment by different methods of dermepenthesis. Nowadays, 3D-bioprinting technology allows to obtain experimental skin substitutes with formation of functional intercellular contacts, controlled extracellular matrix structure, the keratinocytes differentiation and neovascularization potential while the implantation into experimental wounds of laboratory animals. The aim of this study is to learn and compare actual 3D-bioprinting technical approaches for creating artificial skin substitutes and laboratory methods to study the characteristics of the resulting tissue (bibliography: 24 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):67-70
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EFFECT OF AMINO ACID ON THE DEVELOPMENT SKIN TISSUE ORGANOTYPIC CULTURE
Chalisova N.I., Korovin A.E.
Abstract
The effect of the 20 coded amino acids was investigated on the development of the processes of the proliferation in the organotypic tissue culture of rat skin. The amino acids lysine, arginine and glutamine acid at 0,05 ng/ml concentration stimulated the cellular proliferation in the growth zone of explants by 29-30%. The mustard-like agent cyclophosphane at 1 mg/ml concentration inhibited the cellular proliferation. The delay of this inhibiting effect of cyclophosphane was observed by the combined action of stimulating amino acids with the cyclophosphane. Thus, the amino acids with the charge radicals can be protectors of the cellular proliferation by the toxic effect of the cyclophosphane on the skin. This effect can be used for the treatment of the mustard injury of skin and for the delay of the adverse effect of cytostatic in oncology (1 figure, 1 table, bibliography: 28 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):71-76
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USING THE SYSTEM OF BIOMETRIC VIDEO ANALYTICS TO DETERMINE THE PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL STATE MAN
Dmitriev P.I., Oniksimov A.V., Melnik A.V.
Abstract
In the presented material, a description of the hardware-software complex for assessing a person's psychophysiological state is given. Its main technical characteristics are indicated, including the ability for the user to fill the classifier with target templates that are to be identified in real time. The subject areas are indicated, in which the use of biometric video analytics systems is expedient for increasing the labor productivity of the corresponding specialist (bibliography: 15 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):77-80
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USING OF THE NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCING MEDICAL OXYGEN AND APPLICATIONS OF IT IN MILITARY MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS
Enikeeva R.A.
Abstract
Currently known methods of producing medical oxygen are described. The characteristics, that create restrictions or decide if one method is promising or not in the medical service, have been listed. A retrospective evaluation for the results of the science research and technical testing works carried out in the period from 2004 to 2008 in this direction military and hospital echelons of the medical service of the Russian Federation armed forces has been given. The pressure swing adsorption technology has been described. Blocks and components required to create a mobile installation for the production storage and distribution of the 93% oxygen gas at the stages of medical evacuation in military medical organization has been specified. It has been shown that the technical characteristics of the installation and quality of the 93% medical oxygen gas, depends the most on the adsorbent chosen and components of the installation in general. The creation of a domestic installation based on pressure swing adsorption technology allowing 93% medical oxygen gas production, storage and distribution to the functional units in military medicine jrganisations has been established (bibliography: 9 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):81-83
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MODERN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF VESSELS FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES
Chernikov O.G., Cherniy V.S., Zaymagov S.V.
Abstract
Hospital vessels are considered as the mobile multidisciplinary medical organizations on the sea battlefield. At the same time hospital vessels are used in daily conditions: for medical support of staff of ship groups of forces of the fleet in distant sea and ocean zones; for medical support in the remote areas of the coast and island territories; for medical support of oil industry workers, field men, fishermen, etc. Forms and ways of use of hospital courts according to modern requirements, taking into account modernization and development of the fleet are analysed (11 figs, bibliography: 13 refs).
Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy. 2017;36(3):84-92
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