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Vol 2, No S1 (2020)

Articles
INFLUENCE FEATURES OF EXOMETABOLITES OF CAT TAPEWORM CYSTICERCUS ON THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF L929 CELLS
Abramov D.V., Mashenko V.V.
Abstract
Roach is an important commercial species that is caught in large numbers in lake Ladoga. All river fish are classified as "conditionally fit" and must be subjected to sufficient cooking for consumption. This is primarily due to the fact that fish, including roach, can be a source of infection and a factor in the transmission of pathogens of helminthiasis in humans and domestic animals. The purpose of the work is to study the fauna of roach helminths of lake Ladoga from commercial catches. Parasitological research was conducted using generally accepted methods. All fish were 6-7 years old. Sexual structure of the sample: females - 6 specimens (40%), males - 9 specimens (60%). During the autopsy, it was found that 13 fish had a normal state of internal organs, 2 fish were infected with ligules and did not had adipose tissue. 13 parasite species were found: class Monogenea (Dactylogyrus vistulae, Diplozoon sp.), class Trematoda (Diplostomum sp., Tyladelphys sp., Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Bucephalus polymorphus, Bunodera luciopercae, Paracoenogonimus ovatus), class Cestoda (Proteocephalus torulosus, Ligula intestinalis), class Nematoda (Rhabdochona denudata, Raphidascaris acus), and class Acanthocephala (Acanthocephalus lucii). Larvae infestation of Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Ligula intestinalis leads to a decrease in the commodity qualities of roach. Paracoenogonimus ovatus may have medical significance. All river fish for food and for use as animal feed must be subjected to sufficient cooking for decontamination.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):4-6
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INFLUENCE FEATURES OF EXOMETABOLITES OF CAT TAPEWORM CYSTICERCUS ON THE PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF L929 CELLS
Adoeva E.Y., Bityutsky L.M., Zvezdin V.V.
Abstract
Tissue parasites in the host organism cause a number of local and general changes aimed at ensuring a long-term existence. They secrete a complex of biologically active substances that stimulate the proliferation of various cells. This work is a fragment of a comprehensive study of relationships in host-parasite systems in tissue larval helminthiases. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the nature of the cat tapeworm cysticerci exometabolites on some parameters of the proliferative activity of L929 fibroblast line. Fibroblasts were cultured on media containing cysticercal metabolites. The level of proliferative activity of fibroblasts was assessed by the number of mitoses and cloning efficiency. It was shown that exometabolites of feline cysticerci have wide spectra of biological action. The variety of effects caused by exometabolites probably allows the parasite to flexibly adapt to the conditions of parasitization in host tissues, act on various links of its homeostasis and maintain a certain level of specialization and functional activity of various target cells. Exometabolites of feline chain cysticerci alter the level of proliferative activity, the degree and direction of differentiation of connective tissue and epithelial cells in cultures. The nature of this effect is determined by the belonging of cells to one or another tissue type, the degree of their differentiation, as well as the dose of exometabolites and, probably, the ratio of their various components. The dependence of the nature of the influence of exometabolites of cysticerci on the proliferation of L929 cells on the presence of serum in the culture medium was studied. The cultivation of L929 fibroblasts on the medium with the greatest inhibitory effect was accompanied by a characteristic fatty degeneration of these cells, which can be considered as stimulation of differentiation of L929 fibroblasts along the pathway of conversion into adipocytes.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):7-10
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CLINICAL AND HISTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF REGENERATIVE OSTEOGISTOGENESIS
Akulov A.A., Gaiduk I.A., Gorbulich A.V.
Abstract
The stages of regenerative post-traumatic osteohistogenesis and the role of regenerative histion at different stages of restoring bone integrity were studied. Including the process of regeneration of the regenerate in the area of bone fracture with the conversion of reticulofibrous tissue into lamellar bone, the regular processes that make up the reparative regeneration of lamellar bone tissue (proliferation, differentiation, adaptation) proceeding heterochronously. The ratios of tissue elements at different stages of regenerative histogenesis are analyzed. Intercellular interactions at the stages of regenerative osteohistogenesis are manifested by the sequential formation of certain cellular histions, in which different histological elements dominate at different stages of repair. The features of bone tissue restoration at the stages of post-traumatic osteohistogenesis and the coordination of bone regeneration with neovasculogenesis were revealed.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):11-12
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ON THE ISSUE OF DIFFERENTIATION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL DEPENDING ON THE REACTION OF PHYSIOLOGI- CAL SYSTEMS OF THE BODY TO PAIN IRRITATION
Aldanov A.R., Davletova A.K., Avdushenko S.A.
Abstract
One of the most effective ways to maintain and improve performance is to select military specialists to perform the set training and combat training tasks based on the assessment of the functional state of their body and determination of resistance to extreme factors. For certain groups of military personnel, the most important quality is resistance to pain, since their activity is associated with the impact of intense factors. Differentiation of military personnel depending on the resistance to pain was carried out using the technique "compression of the upper limb shoulder with a cuff under pressure of 200 mm Hg. art." Depending on the severity of the reaction of the heart and thermoregulatory systems, the ranking of military personnel was carried out. Аpplication of the method of “squeezing the upper limb shoulder with a cuff under a pressure of 200 mm. Hg. Art. ”allows you to study the reaction of military personnel to pain, determine the intensity of the reaction and differentiate military personnel depending on the severity of the response of the physiological systems of their body to pain.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):13-16
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WATERHOUSE-FRIDERICHSEN SYNDROME AS MAIN REASON OF DEATH IN RUSSIAN ARMED FORCES SOLDIERS IN GENERALIZED FORM OF MENINGOCOCCAL INFECTION
Alekseeva M.S., Muzykina A.A.
Abstract
For military collectives outbreaks and the increased incidence of meningococcal infection are an emergency problem. Meningococcal disease has been known since ancient times in such a form as epidemic cerebrospinal meningitis, isolated and described in detail in 1805 p. G. Vieusseux after the big outbreak in Geneva. In 1889, W. Osler isolated the pathogen from the blood, this discovery proved that meningococcus causes not only meningitis, but also other clinical forms of the disease. In 1965, the ICD-8 World Health Assembly introduced a new name for the disease, meningococcal infection. In the period from 1995 to 2016, the dynamics of the gray-group landscape of meningococci, causing a generalized form of meningococcal infection, changed. An increase in the incidence of meningococcal infection caused by serogroup W135 is observed: in 1998, W135 occupied 2-3% of epidemic serogroups such as A, В, С; in 2016, the number of meningococcal infections caused by W135 was 46. Waterhouse-Frederichsen syndrome, a clinical syndrome due to acute adrenal cortex function disorder due to hemorrhages in both adrenal glands, is a consequence of acute reduction or complete cessation of gluco- and mineralocorticoid hormone production without prior chronic adrenal insufficiency. This syndrome was first described by J. Voelcker in 1884. A more complete description of the clinical picture of acute adrenal insufficiency was given by R. Waterhouse in 1911. The aim of the study is to study Waterhouse-Friederichsen syndrome and to identify the incidence of this syndrome as the cause of death in military personnel in a generalized form of meningococcal infection.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):16-18
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ACTIVATION OF ALPHA-RHYTHMIC AСTIVITY OF EEG USING TECHNIQUE OF ABDOMINAL BREATHING FOR CORRECTION OF NERVO-PSYCHIC STRESS
Alyeva A.R., Shakirova V.A., Avdushenko S.A.
Abstract
Adverse environment, psycho-emotional stress, physical training, the influence of so-called weak factors, lead to acute and chronic stress, have a significant impact on the state of health of modern man. If a healthy body is constantly in a state of psychological stress, without special measures that eliminate adverse factors, then it will eventually pass into a state bordering on the disease. Unfortunately, in the modern world with psycho-emotional stress, a person can meet everywhere. That is why it is very important to find such techniques that would be able to remove the human body from a stressful state. Activation of the alpha activity of the EEG using the technique of abdominal breathing allows you to correct the functional state of the body of the military.Аpplication of the BFB session allowed to form the skill of reproducing 2, 3, 4 s. periods of abdominal breathing in the form of cardiorespiratory synchronization, and against the background of their successful implementation, activate the alpha-oscillatory activity of the cortical regions of the brain.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):19-21
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COMPARISON OF THE MAIN INDICATORS OF SCIENTIFIC ACTIVITY OF THE MILITARY MEDICAL ACADEMY S.M. KIROV AMONG HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF MEDICAL DIRECTION
Afimjina K.G., Sivashchenko P.P., Zavarukhin A.C., Hakimjanov M.M.
Abstract
One of the most controversial topics not only in Russian scientometry, but also in the daily practice of scientific medical organizations is the analysis of article lists of literature (citations) to determine the rating of a scientific institution and the rating of scientists. Scientometric indicators are increasingly used by the governing and controlling bodies of the Russian Federation to assess the quality of scientific work of organizations and individual specialists. Quantitative analysis of the success of scientific and teaching activities is able to determine the quality and efficiency of the organization of higher education institutions, the use of automated data collection and analysis systems speeds up the above process, making it easier and more objective. This article examines the indicators of the S. M. Kirov Military Medical Academy among higher educational institutions of medical direction of the Russian Federation. This is achieved by processing two groups of indicators for the entire existence of the University and for the last 5 years as of January 1 of this year. According to the main scientometric indicator - the Hirsch index, the Academy is on the 3rd place among medical higher education institutions in Russia. Scientometric indicators are citation indicators. The use of scientometric indicators in most cases allows the most adequate and objective assessment of progressive and regressive fields of science, to identify institutions that are active in research, to encourage them, and to analyze the implementation of the tasks set by various departments and ministries. The use of this method adequately reflects the scientific activities of medical schools among themselves and is a correct method of comparison.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):22-24
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EARLY DIAGNOSIS OF COGNITIVE PATIENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND SECOND TYPE DIABETS IN PER- SONS OF ELDERLY AND SENILE AGE
Babin Y.M.
Abstract
The current stage in the development of science and society is characterized by the widespread use of various information technologies to improve ways to fulfill the basic tasks of health care, as well as to realize new opportunities that appear precisely because of the development of technologies. Improving the quality and increasing the efficiency of the work of health authorities, including the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, is possible only through the introduction of modern techniques and the use of up-to-date software for the highest quality medical care. Early diagnosis of cognitive impairment allows timely adjustment of patient treatment and improve their quality of life in the future. Methods of screening assessment of cognitive functions are currently in demand in psychiatry and neurology. According to many authors, the brief mental status assessment scale (MMSE) and the clock drawing test (CDT) are a reliable tool for the initial screening of cognitive impairment. They are used to detect signs of dementia not only in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other degenerative diseases of the nervous system in older people, but also in cerebrovascular pathology, postoperative cognitive dysfunction, multiple sclerosis, and other diseases found in younger people. The aim of this study was to create an algorithm that identifies the likelihood of cognitive impairment in elderly and senile patients, depending on the results of routine laboratory tests at the start of the study. As a result of the work, a flexible algorithm was obtained that can be used in various situations to improve the quality of decisions taken, taking into account the likely risks of cognitive impairment.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):25-28
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SPONTANEOUS INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. RISK FACTORS
Bakhtiyarova A.B., Grigorova K.A.
Abstract
Acute disorders of cerebral circulation are one of the most severe pathologies of vascular lesions of the brain. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is the most common form of this group. Due to the high level of mortality and disability this topic is an important topic of modern medicine. The aim of our research was to establish risk factors for the spontaneous intracranial hemorrhages, taking into account sex, age and comorbidities. As a material were used protocols of post-morten examinations, taken from archive of educational pathology laboratory of ministry of defense of Russian Federation over 2016-2018 years, totally 35 cases. Average age of patients was 59 years, male patients more than female in ratio 1:9, 1/3 of cases made up a “family” case. The most common cause of cerebral hemorrhage is hypertension (80- 85% of cases), atherosclerosis of large cerebral vessels (40-45%), blood diseases (thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia - 2%), inflammatory changes in brain vessels (encephalopathy - 7%), aneurisms of large cerebral vessels (5%). Arterial hypertension is a risk factor for both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. Risk in patients with blood pressure higher than 160/95 mm Hg the risk increases approximately 4 times in comparison to people wit blood pressure lower than 140/90 mm Hg, and at blood pressure more than 200/115 mm Hg - 10 times. Prognostic risk factors 3 for the lethal outcome of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages include a large volume of hemorrhage - 60-70 sm , localization of hemorrhage (on the lower surface of the brain), including mixed, the presence of complications in the form of blood breakthrough into the ventricles of the brain and into the subarachnoid space.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):28-30
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THE POSSIBILITY OF SIMULATION OF THE FIELD MEDICAL ORGANIZATION
Bolgarev D.V., Sivashchenko P.P., Volkova Y.Y., Babin Y.M.
Abstract
When working with a field medical organization in the course of medical evacuation support for military conflicts in the conditions of mass medical care in the presence of intensive patient flows, questions arise about the relationship between the forces and means of the medical service, human resources, sufficiency of medical equipment and other necessary resources for medical care. Simulation allows optimal distribution of forces and resources of the medical service depending on the capacity and structure of health losses and is an important direction of Informatization of the medical service in peace and war. The main purpose of modeling is creating a model that would ensure the similarity of its results with real data obtained during practical activities - the various types of medical procedures, results of exercises, etc. After that, creating a model of the flow of patients in different categories, it is advisable to determine the most weaknesses in the work of the military-medical organizations, doctors ' workload and to optimize the flow of patients. Modeling allows you to remove certain links from the structure of the evacuation arm or put them together in a different sequence to obtain the optimal result, which can be achieving the best results of care, ensuring that the capacity of the evacuation arm corresponds to the incoming flow of patients, and optimal use of medical service resources.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):31-32
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RELEVANCE OF MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF HCV INFECTION
Bunimovich A.A., Urusova M.S., Solovyeva T.S.
Abstract
According to WHO and European Union experts, hepatitis C is one of the three most important socially significant infectious diseases in humans and is one of the main causes of chronic liver diseases. About 3% of the human population on Earth (approximately 170 million people) is infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and about 3-4 million people are newly infected each year. An important clinical problem of this disease is the long-term asymptomatic course of the chronic infectious process, which complicates the timely diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C. The aim of the study is to determine the relevance of the morphological method for diagnosing HCV-infection, supplemented by immunohistochemical research. The method of R. G. Knodell and V. Desmet was used to determine the histological activity index and the stage of liver fibrosis. An immunohistochemical study to determine markers of HCV-infection was evaluated qualitatively. Histological examination of liver biopsies in military personnel aged 20 to 63 years with a clinical diagnosis of hepatitis C revealed the presence of fibrosis from minimal to severe. Information about the duration of the disease is unknown, hepatitis C was detected in patients for the first time, with a latent course. In most cases, there was a weak histological activity index in combination with moderate fibrosis, which is a direct indication for antiviral treatment. In all observations, in the presence of virus antigens in the blood, the structural antigen of the virus was detected immunohistochemically, both in the parenchyma and in the cells of the portal tracts of liver tissue. Morphological diagnostics remains relevant, since it determines important parameters for treatment-the activity and stage of fibrosis. Immunohistochemical testing allows to diagnose the presence of virus antigens in tissue cells in unverified hepatitis and to target the Clinician for additional serological examination.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):33-35
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DETERMINATION OF THE MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION OF COLISTIN FOR TOPICAL BACTERIA IN MICROWELLS
Gadzhikurbanov O.A., Abdurakhmanov N.R., Loskutov N.S.
Abstract
Currently, the problem of antibiotic resistance is extremely relevant: new drugs do not appear quickly enough, and bacteria are adapting to antibiotics faster and faster. Therefore, in the 2000s, colistin returned to clinical practice, the mechanism of action of which changes the cell wall of bacteria, which leads to their death. This allows us to treat multi-drug resistant strains. However, in recent years, strains resistant to colistin have been found, the only method for determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to which is to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration. Using this method is extremely time-consuming for everyday research, so there are other convenient methods for determining the minimum suppressive concentration to colistin. The aim of the work: to investigate the sensitivity of bacterial strains to colistin by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration in microwells using the diagnostic KIT "MIC-MICRO". In the study of the sensitivity of K. рneumoniae and P. аeruginosa to the drug, differences in the results from the control method were observed only in cases with sensitive strains where very small concentrations of the antibiotic are used. All other results of both methods when setting the sensitivity of A. baumannii strains to colistin coincided. The study showed the comparability of the results obtained using the "MIC-MICRO" and the reference method, and also revealed the advantages of the method under study. They are: reliability of the results obtained, especially within the cut-off points, ease of use and ease of accounting for the results. Further research is also needed to validate this method as available for practical laboratories.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):36-38
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ANALYSIS OF FATAL CASES OF MELANOMA IN MILITARY PERSONNEL
Galkina A.A.
Abstract
Melanoma is considered one of the most aggressive tumors, characterized by a rapid course and multiple metastasis. Many issues of etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of skin melanoma remain relevant, insufficiently studied, therefore, the study of the tumor among scientists of the whole world is of great scientific and practical interest. It’s useful in the world of oncological diseases of the skin, among which melanoma is 3-5%, and continue to grow. Melanoma has an aggressive course, the average 5-year survival rate at the late stages of tumor development is 18%. The average annual rate of growth in the incidence of melanoma in the world is about 5%, this indicator is considered one of the highest high numbers of malignant tumors of the earth. The purpose of the study: to study cases of fatal outcomes among military personnel with skin melanoma, using general scientific methods, to identify the alleged causes of the disease. The contract servicemen from various districts showed an increase in pigmented skin formation, a change in color and surface against the background of a pigmented nevus, which had existed since childhood or developed de novo, in two cases, the primary focus was not detected. The average age was 42 years. In most cases, surgical excision of the formation was carried out, the diagnosis was established at the II-III-IV stages of malignant melanoma, usually in the presence of regional and distant metastases. Chemotherapy, radiation and hormone therapy did not improve the condition, and myelotoxicity and the progression of metastatic damage to internal organs, more often the brain, led to deterioration, severe anemia and multiple organ failure, which was the direct cause of deaths.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):39-41
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USING OF MUSEOGENOMICS METHODS TO STUDY THE HISTORICAL COLLECTION OF ARGAS TICKS
Glushenko D.D., Soloveva P.A., Rakin A.I.
Abstract
There was made a sample survey of museum specimens of the unique Argasidae ticks collection of E.N. Pavlovsky, collected during his expeditions to Central Asia from 1934 to 1955, in order to determine DNA fragments of ticks and causative agents of tick-borne infections. The technology of Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used in this work. The increaease of the accumulation curve (Ct) occurred at the 30th-40th cycle of amplification of the conserved mitochondrial DNA site, thus indicating that museum samples are suitable for further research and study of the tick genome. Genetic markers of tick-borne infections were identified in 10 samples from 48 ticks. 8 samples were positive for the presence of nucleic acids fragments of tick-borne rickettsia (Rickettsia species). There were identified genetic markers of Lyme disease causative agent (Borrelia burgdorferi s.l.) in one of the samples. Also the DNA fragments specific to Q-fever (Coxiella burnetii) were discovered in one case. Obtained data represent high scientific significance of the E.N. Pavlovsky collection in modern time. The unique biological material can be used to study the structure and evolution of the genome of Argasidae ticks, as well as etiology and the spread of tick-borne infections.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):42-44
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INFLUENCE OF THE LEVEL OF PERSONAL ANXIETY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING SPATIAL ORIENTATION OF OPERATORS OF THE AVIATION PROFILE
Glushkov R.S., Grigoryev I.N.
Abstract
The existing system for the prevention of spatial orientation violations has come a long way. Currently, all currently used techniques, conditionally, can be divided into two large groups. The first is based on attempts to improve the situational awareness of the pilot at the current moment of the flight, that is, give him more information about the current flight mode, the position of the aircraft. The second is a set of ground training activities, including both theoretical acquaintance with the psychophysiological features of spatial orientation in flight, the laws of development of the illusions of spatial position, and classes at specialized training simulators, which allow pilots to get acquainted, in safe conditions for them, with the basic, most often developing illusions of spatial position. The need to improve this prevention system becomes apparent from the analysis of accident statistics over the past decades, since only the improvement of aviation technology does not dramatically reduce the number of accidents due to spatial orientation. A comparative analysis of the training modes of spatial orientation of the aviation profile operators was carried out. Among the training regimes conducted, the regimen combining the simultaneous provision of statokinetic and optokinetic effects showed the greatest efficiency. Subsequently, in order to assess the impact of individual psychological characteristics, persons who underwent training in this regimen were additionally assessed by the level of personal anxiety, with a comparative analysis. A dependence of the effectiveness of the training on the level of personal anxiety was revealed. Persons with a high level of personal anxiety achieved a less pronounced improvement in the quality of spatial orientation, compared with people with a low level of personal anxiety.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):45-47
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REACTIVE CHANGES OF LIVER TISSUES AT PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS
Gorbulich V.A.
Abstract
A morphometric analysis of histological preparations of the human liver was carried out at the optical level. It was found that in the early stages of diagnosed diseases, such as fatty degeneration and hepatitis, reactive changes affect histologically different cellular liver differs. The parenchyma cells, the hepatocytes, the leading cellular organ differential, are subject to the greatest changes. They observed vacuolization of the cytoplasm, probably caused by increased glycogen synthesis, an increase in the number of peroxisomes, lysosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum hypertrophy, which presumably refers to the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms of the organ. Along with hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, endothelial cells of the sinusoidal capillaries, hepatic stellate cells (Ito cells), lymphocytes, etc. are isolated in the hepatic lobules. Interaction of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells through paracrine factors forming the liver microenvironment is important both in normal and pathological conditions. The number of Kupffer cells, macrophages of the liver, with fatty degeneration and hepatitis increases. Reactive changes in tissue components of blood vessels and bile ducts are less expressive.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):48-49
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CORRECTION OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE BODY OF MILITARY PERSONNEL USING THE BIOFEEDBACK METHOD REGULATION OF OXYHEMOGLOBIN
Grigorev D.L., Avdushenko S.A.
Abstract
The body of military specialists may be exposed to one or several extreme factors, but the resulting maximum tension of adaptive mechanisms prevents life-threatening deviations in the parameters of homeostasis. What the functional state develops in a person as a result of military-professional activity depends on the effectiveness of the correlation measures, whether physiological changes will go into the pathological process (disease), thereby affecting the level of combat readiness. BOS-training allows you to form the skill of military personnel to independently correct the functional state of their body. BFB represents a set of procedures during which, through an external feedback circuit, mainly based on computer technology, information is provided about the current state of a controlled physiological function, which helps to develop self-control skills, learn self-regulation and subsequently change this function arbitrarily. A universal mechanism for increasing reserve capacity is to increase resistance to hypoxia. The ability, formed using the biofeedback technique to regulate the content of oxyhemoglobin in the blood, is an effective way to correct the functional state of the body of military personnel.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):49-51
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REPARATIVE HISTOGENESIS OF MOUSE’S ADIPOSE TISSUE AT MECHANICAL DAMAGE
Davjdenko A.N., Mirgorodskaya O.E.
Abstract
The features of the interaction of various cellular differs of mouse hypodermis in reparative histogenesis at the light level were identified and described. As a result of the study, it was found that at different periods of reparative histogenesis, the cellular differs of the hypodermis have their own distinctive morphometric characteristics, thanks to which it is possible to determine the period after application of the wound and more precisely to zone the wound area. In the first phase of reparative histogenesis associated with the inflammation reaction, adipocyte plasmolemma ruptures and active lipid release, fat embolism of the microvasculature and blood cell migration into the intercellular substance with the formation of a leukocyte shaft at the border with necrotic tissue were observed. The ratio in the repair histion at this period increases towards neutrophils and macrophages that infiltrate hypodermis. In the second phase of reparative histogenesis associated with the formation of granulation tissue, adipogenesis was observed in the hypodermis. Therefore, the ratio in the repair histion changes in the direction of increasing the number of adipocytes, but has not yet reached the norm.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):52-54
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ABOUT INFLUENCE OF HAND COOLING ON THE HEARTBEAT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPHA-RHYTHM
Dambegov R.R., Makovlev S.P., Zeynalov T.M.
Abstract
We have conducted a research of the influence of hand cooling on the temperature of intact hand and a research of characteristics of variational heart rate monitoring: pulse, parameters of bar chart of R-R intervals distribution, spectrograms and scattergrams, and parameters of EEG’s alpha-rhythm. Wehave registered the following parameters of R-R intervals distribution histogram: mode (Mo), mode amplitude (AMo), variational range (BP), pressure index (IN); spectrogram parameters: overall power of specter (TP), power of low frequency range ( LF) and high frequency range (HF), LF/HF ratio and sattergram cloud area (S). Time of cooling was 4 minutes and the temperature was from 1 0 to 4 C. We distinguished two groups of test subjects according to dynamics of intact hand temperature: some were stable when cooled, their 0 temperature of intact hand dropped no further than 0.4 C, saw no change or even rose, and others were unstable with their researched temperature dropping 0.50 C or more. We understood that heartbeat dynamics did not change in for both groups, however, we saw differences in heartbeat variability haracteristics We came to a result, that stable group has higher numbers of variational range, scattergram cloud area, higher numbers of overall power of specter and LF/HF ratio. Distribution of alpha-rhythm was characterized by significant asymmetry. As a result of cooling, values of researched objects changed in different directions: average values of BP, TP and S did not change drastically, while LF/HF ratio decreased, which shows an important role of central influences on the heartbeat and increase in parasympathetic influence activity under the cooling. The other - unstable - group had lower results of BP, TP, S and LF/HF ratio before the cooling, and after the influence BP, TP and S increased, while LF/HF ratio did not change. Distribution of alpha-rhythm was characterized by notable symmetry. We concluded that there are two patterns of peripheral thermoregulation under the cooling. Constriction of peripheral vessels helps to keep warmth and to centralize the bloodstream, but lowers the temperature of limbs, which is an adequate adaptation type during continuous low-temperature influence. Extension of peripheral vessels helps limbs to function normally, but increases the loss of warmth; this type of thermoregulation seems to be the most adequate when in need of doing short-term manipulation under cooling.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):54-58
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VENTILATION-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA AS A COMPLICATION AMONG PATIENTS IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
Dovgan Y.G., Troitskaya A.S.
Abstract
Ventilation - associated pneumonia is a life-threatening complication of patients in the intensive care unit, which significantly worsens the condition of patients and often leads to a fatal outcome. Most often, it occurs in patients with long-term mechanical ventilation of lungs, who are in a critical condition. The purpose of our study was to present the etiology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of ventilation-associated pneumonia, and to introduce basic and innovative methods of prevention and diagnosis of this complication. It was revealed that among 29 people who died from intracerebral hemorrhages in the intensive care unit, 12 (41,4%) had the development of this complication. Basically, ventilatorassociated pneumonia occurred in the form of bronchopneumonia, interstitial and aspiration pneumonia of mixed etiology: nosocomial gram-negative bacteria and normal oral microflora. The diagnostic research was done by using bronchoscopy, multispiral computed tomography, and chest radiography. To identify infectious agent used the method of bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatographic tests of mucus. Regardless of the form of ventilator-associated pneumonia, the pathoanatomic examination revealed its macroscopic signs, confirmed by the results of histological examination. Reducing the risk of nosocomial pneumonia to a certain extent can be achieved by reducing the time of forced ventilation with the use of modern principles of "sparing" artificial ventilation, maintaining spontaneous respiratory activity while maintaining the cough reflex, observing basic sanitary and hygienic standards when interacting with the patient and the requirements of asepsis when working with vascular and catheters during bronchoscopy.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):58-60
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PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF NON-HEALING BEDSORE ULCERS IN INTENSIVE CARE PATIENTS IN NEUROSURGERY
Dyachkov P.S., Zabrodskaya Y.M.
Abstract
Bedsores are a serious complication in patients with impaired tissue nutrition not only under the influence of external compression, but also a result of various systemic diseases, as well as disorders of the nervous system. Purpose of research. To study the features of the microscopic structure of non-healing bedsore ulcers in patient who are unconscious for a long time in the intensive care unit. Material and methods. Microscopic examination of non-healing bedsore ulcers in 6 patients (5 men,1 woman),who are in a long unconscious state with the consequences of severe traumatic brain injury at the age 22 to 70 years (average-45).In cases, the bedsore ulcer was localized in the sacrum, in 1 case in in the heel region and 1 on the scalp in the occipital region. Results. It was found that the surface of non-healing bedsore ulcers is represented by granulation tissue, which has a morphologically similar character in all cases, regardless of localization. The main differences between granulations in chronic bedsore and classical granulation tissue are established. It was noted that the granulation tissue of bedsore ulcers has an incomplete structure with a violation of the ratio and reduction of layers, increased collagenization. In the considered cases, only 4 layers were determined: the surface leukocyte-necrotic layer; the surface layer of vascular loops; layer of vertical vessels; maturing layer. Consaltion. Bedsore ulcers in patient who are in a long unconscious state have the character of chronic deep non-healing wounds with the formation of atypical granulation tissue, reflecting the violation of the phases of the wound process.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):61-64
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PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE HEART IN PULMONARY DISEASES
Zavialov A.P., Moretti M.R.
Abstract
The actuality of the research topic is related to the prevalence of respiratory diseases worldwide. According to WHO, statistics on respiratory diseases in the world account for 40% of the total incidence, and therefore they are considered the most common. Patients with severe pulmonary pathologies die more often due to the cardiac mechanism of death. Lung diseases of various etiologies can lead to pathological changes in the heart, which affects the course and outcome of the disease. Identifying regularities and variability of cardiovascular pathology in respiratory diseases is important in clinical practice, prevention of their severe complications and treatment. The aim of the research was to study the morphological changes that occur in the heart in lung diseases and the factors that influence them. The protocols of pathoanatomic studies of patients with respiratory system pathologies were analyzed. Cases were divided into 3 groups: acute and chronic inflammatory, oncological processes in the lungs. Morphological changes in the heart in acute pulmonary diseases are: cardiomyocyte dystrophy, myocarditis, serous or fibrinous exudative pericarditis in combination. In cases of chronic diffuse lung diseases, there was a change in the heart phenotype according to the type of "pulmonary" heart with severe right ventricular hypertrophy and myocarditis with myocardial dystrophy when the disease worsened. In malignant lung tumors, myocardial dystrophy, hydropericardium, hemotamponade. It should be noted that hypertrophy of the left ventricle is expressed to varying degrees, which is caused by arterial hypertension in 28% of cases, which in combination with atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries leads to hypoxia and potentiates the development of heart failure.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):64-66
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MAIN TENDENCIES OF THE INCIDENCE OF MILITARY SERVING WOMEN OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Zarubenko A.I., Sivashenko P.P., Babin Y.M., Volkova Y.Y.
Abstract
Currently, the role and influence of women in society is increasing. Women successfully master traditionally male professions, including military service. In terms of social norms, military activity has always been considered a masculine-labeled professional environment. Now, thanks in large part to the greater legal emancipation of women, the scope of social norms is expanding. Nowadays, the armies of many foreign countries have in their ranks up to 15% of women’s military personnel [2]. It is important to note that they occupy a wide range of posts related not only to the provision of troops, but also to the direct conduct of hostilities. In the armed forces of the Russian Federation, the number of women military personnel is more than 10% of the total [3]. There are reasons to say that this figure will grow steadily. So, the list of military universities and the list of specialties available for women is expanding significantly every year. At the time of 2020, 10 military institutions of higher military education, including the Military Medical Academy. CM. Kirov will carry out a set of girls [4]. Many components of the environment and professional extreme environment can pose a threat to the health of female military personnel, such as chronic psychological stress, increased physical exertion, exposure to noise, vibration, temperature changes, ionizing radiation, sharp fluctuations in altitude and atmospheric pressure, which is often a consequence of military-professional activity, especially when performing tasks in the field. Therefore, an additional task for the medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation is to identify the existing problems of providing medical assistance to women military personnel and preventing their incidence, as well as maintaining reproductive health, the relevance of which is emphasized by the state demographic situation.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):67-68
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APPLICATION OF THE PEREKREST METHOD FOR DIFFERENTIATING OPERATOR SPECIALISTS DEPENDING ON THE RELIABILITY OF THEIR ACTIVITIES
Ziva I.I., Selivanov A.E., Avdushenko S.A.
Abstract
The current stage of development of society is characterized by the fact that the pace and rhythm of life is extremely high, and therefore the flows of incoming information, and they are voluminous and require quick and accurate analysis by a person, high-quality decision making in the shortest possible time. One of the urgent problems of the physiology of labor is the problem of evaluating the performance of operator-specific specialists. For a specialist in the operator profile, the reliability of activities and the presence of an adequate strategy for behavior in an “emergency” situation are of particular importance. The purpose of the study: to test the “Cross” method for differentiating specialist operators depending on the reliability of their operator activities and determining their strategy for behavior in an “emergency” situation. As a result of the study, it was revealed that the Perekrest technique allows differentiating specialists depending on the reliability of operator activity. The introduction of the “program malfunction” situation into the “cross” test procedure allows identifying individuals with constructive strategies for behavior in an “emergency” situation.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):69-71
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ANALYSIS OF LETHAL OUTCOME IN ACUTE TRANSMURAL MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN OPERATED AND NON- OPERATED PERSONS
Zimnitskiy I.A., Gusev V.A.
Abstract
The cardiovascular disease are the one of the main causes of hospitalization and mortality in Russia and the other countries. Myocardial infarction, the problem of treatment and timely diagnosis is one of the most actual, socially significant and foreground tasks of world and domestic health care. The coronary stenting is the most widely implemented medical practice which is the main treatment for myocardial infarction. The main indications for it are significant stenosis of the left coronary artery, three-vascular or two-vascular lesion, stable angina pectoris, acute coronary syndrome. The analyze of fatal outcomes in acute transmural myocardial infarction in operated and non-operated individuals is the aim of the study. The unoperated accounted for 87% of cases operated on 13% of cases, while all of patients had absolute indications for stenting immediately. Transmural myocardial infarction was twice as often in men, and five years earlier than in women. This indicate that the female sex is more resistant to diseases of the cardiovascular system. Transmural infarction had a different location, more often than the anterior, anterolateral wall of the left ventricle and septum. The operation was not performed in connection with a serious and extremely serious condition caused by cardiogenic, arrhythmogenic shock, pulmonary artery thromboembolism in most cases of study. The cause of deaths was repeated myocardial infarction due to postresuscitation disease, stent thrombosis and intraoperative asystole in all cases of surgical intervention. It should be noted, that the reason for the late untimely initiation of treatment in the most of the dead was the initial refusal of hospitalization.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):72-74
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ENDOMETRIAL POLYPS. QUESTIONS OF ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
Ivanov A.S., Grebneva V.V.
Abstract
Endometrial polyps are a fairly common type of pathological endometrial hyperplastic process, but the molecular and pathogenetic mechanism underlying their formation and progression remains unclear. However, today their development is explained by a change in the level of normally hormonal reception and secretion of women more often in the premenopausal period or a dysregulation of mitotic activity in endometrial cells. The aim of our study is to study the etiology and pathogenesis of endometrial polyps among women of different age groups using general scientific and morphological research methods. According to histological studies of biopsy samples (scrapings) from the uterine cavity, taken from the archive of the pathological anatomical department of the 442nd military district hospital named after Z.P. Soloviev for the period 2017-2019, revealed pathomorphological features of endometrial polyps among women of different age groups with metrorrhagia and associated pathologies: uterine fibroids, cervical canal polyps (of the same etiology), adenomyosis, infertility. More often, endometrial polyps are combined with uterine myoma (54%) and adenomyosis (43%), which emphasizes the similarity of premorbid background, the same clinical manifestations of diseases and their clinical and pathological features. The main factor in the development of endometrial polyps among women of reproductive age and the premenopausal period in age is a change in hormonal levels, namely, an increase in the secretion and reception of estrogen and a decrease in the reception and secretion of progesterone. And among postmenopausal women undergoing hormonal and antitumor therapy against the background of endometrial atrophy, the formation of endometrial polyps is associated with a change in the regulation of mitotic activity in endometrial cells, which is detected by the expression of Ki-67 protein.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):75-77
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ETIOPATHOGENESIS AND CLINICAL-MORPHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MENINGIOMAS. ASSESSMENT OF INDICA- TORS OF MORBIDITY
Ismailov D.D.
Abstract
Meningiomas make up a third of all CNS tumors. Despite this, the issues of their therapeutic treatment, clinical course, histological structure, etiology and risk factors remain poorly understood. In comparison, for example, with gliomas. In part, this may be due to the fact that 90% of diagnosed meningiomas are benign and have a small number of genomic aberrations. Unfortunately, a limited number of cancer registries register only malignant neoplasms. Available global annual incidence rates, standardized by gender and age, range from 2/100 000 to 8/100 000 cases. Over the past decade, the incidence of meningiomas in different countries has increased. It has been suggested that the increase in incidence is associated with an aging population. Although these factors are important, they cannot explain the increase in the incidence rate in most age groups. We carried out a clinical and morphological study of meningiomas, a total of 72 cases, with a study of the frequency of occurrence of various species in different age groups and gender. Among the sample, the incidence of meningiomas in women was 74% versus 26% in men. The number of diagnosed meningiomas in men increases linearly from younger age groups to older groups. In women, the frequency of occurrence of meningiomas is distributed unimodally with the largest number of diagnosed meningiomas in the range from 45 to 59 years. To date, it has been proven that the development factors are meningiomatic genetic diseases (type 2 NF2- neurofibromatosis) and ionizing radiation. Among other reasons - the development of endogenous factors, an imbalance of sex hormones. An imbalance of female sex hormones is likely to be involved in oncogenesis in women, especially in the postmenapausal period.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):78-81
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DEVELOPMENT OF AN ANTISEPTIC PRODUCT BASED ON CHLORGEXIDINE BIGLUCONATE
Kalinin V.M., Zhidkova U.U., Vatanskaya O.A.
Abstract
In recent years, in connection with the increase in the requirements for the work of healthcare institutions and high-tech industries, special attention has been paid to ensuring sterility. The creation, improvement, and proper use of antiseptics and disinfectants remains one of the most important aspects of safe operation. By presidential decree of May 7, 2018 No. 204 «About national goals and strategic objectives of the development of the Russian Federation for the period until 2024», the Government of the Russian Federation was instructed to develop, among others, a national program for the development of health care. As part of the implementation of the provisions of this decree, work is underway on the Development Strategy of the pharmaceutical industry of the Russian Federation for the period until 2030, which focuses on import substitution. In this regard, an attempt was made to create a domestic disinfectant. The article presents the result of a multi-stage development of the composition of a skin antiseptic based on chlorhexidine digluconate. First of all, an analysis of the regulatory framework related to the use of antiseptic and sterilizing agents, a study of the domestic market of skin antiseptics was performed and thus the relevance of this study was shown. In the second stage, the solution technology of the future agent was selected taking into account the effectiveness, safety, and compatibility of substances, economic benefits, and simplicity of production, and the organoleptic properties of the experimental samples were taken into account. At the final stage, quality control was carried out by physicochemical and microbiological methods, which included qualitative, quantitative determination and verification of the resistance of organisms to the solution. At the end of the work, a conclusion was drawn about the possibility of using the drug in hospitals, and other conditions requiring sterility.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):81-84
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ANALYSIS OF DEATHS AMONG CANCER PATIENTS IN MILITARY PERSONNEL
Kardanova A.T., Mekhanikova P.I., Sladkovsky G.V.
Abstract
Cancer mortality statistics are the main source of data for assessing the extent and changes in the structure of cancer diseases over time and geographical areas. The main statistical indicators that indicate the causes of the prevalence of malignant neoplasms are the indicators of morbidity and mortality. But these numbers vary depending on gender, age, and the type of malignant disease itself. The purpose of this study was to study the complications and direct causes of death in patients suffering from malignant neoplasms, taking into account gender and age. In the structure of oncological diseases in the older age group, men are dominated by lung cancer (age varied from 60-65 years), less often by melanoma (age was 55-60 years), tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (older than 70 years), and malignant neoplasms of the liver (60-65 years). Ovarian cancer is the leading cancer pathology in women aged 55-60 years. The main causes of death in cancer are intoxication, cachexia, and extensive metastasis, which leads to multiple organ failure. However, the localization of a growing tumor determines the features of clinical manifestations and deadly complications. In particular, in lung cancer with tumor invasion of major blood vessels causing pulmonary hemorrhage, thromboembolism, obstructive asphyxia. Melanoma of the skin due to rapid growth of the tumor, wide-spread metastasis to vital organs leads to multi-organ failure. Colon carcinoma is often complicated by intestinal obstruction and bleeding. Ovarian damage is accompanied by implantation metastasis of the peritoneal and pelvic organs with the development of peritonitis. In liver cancer, the collapse of the tumor is accompanied by bleeding, the development of peritonitis, encephalopathy.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):85-87
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NEUROLOGICAL STATUS ASSESSMENT BY INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGES
Kiiasov R.E., Tambieva D.R.
Abstract
Intracerebral hemorrhage is a clinical form of acute violation of cerebral blood circulation resulting from intracerebral vessel rupture with increased permeability of its wall. This leads to the formation of a hematoma or hemorrhagic impregnation of the brain pharenhyma with no connection to injury, therapy or surgery. The main factors contributing to the development of the intracerebral hemorrhage are hypertension and atherosclerosis. The aim of the study is to estimate the neurological status of intracerebral hemorrhage in accordance to the results of clinical epicrisis and pathomorphological examination of the brain. General scientific research methods were used. The majority of the patients were admitted to medical institutions unconscious. The G.C.S. was used as the determination of the consciousness oppression degree. One group of the observations with localization of intracerebral hemorrhagies in the frontotemporal-parietal lobes is characterized by the following neurological symptoms: impaired rotation of the head and eyes, stiff neck (frontal lobe), inability to perceive articulate speech and hearing difficulties or impaired hearing (temporal lobe), language disorders, positive Anton’s blindness, changes in the response to light, pyramidal disorders ( parietal lobe), feet reflexes on both sides.ꢀ The second group of observations was with localization of hemorrhages in the parietal and occipital lobes. Oppression of tendon and periosteal reflexes, partial or total loss of the reaction on light (occipital lobe). Partial temperature, tactile and pain thresholds, as well as muscle and articulate feeling (parietal lobe), e.g. impending paraplegia. The localization and volume of intracerebral hemorrhage play a crucial role in the development of neurological status and in the progression of critical respiratory and circulatory regulation disorders.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):87-90
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TO THE QUESTION OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS OF RESERVE OF THE SERVICEMAN BODY CAPABILITIES
Kondakov N.S., Mikheev D.S., Tishchenko I.S.
Abstract
A distinctive feature of the professional activities of military specialists is the need to perform training and combat training tasks in adverse, often unusual environmental conditions. In the course of the work, the significance of physiological mechanisms that determine the reserves of the body of a serviceman during exercise and hypoxia was determined. The contribution of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems in providing resistance to physical stress and hypoxia is analyzed. The role of testing physiological systems in the study of reserves in the military to clarify the effectiveness of their activities under the influence of adverse factors is clarified. The reserve capabilities of the body of a serviceman in response to physical exertion and hypoxia are determined by the capabilities of the central nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Individual resistance to physical activity is determined by the peculiarities of the bioelectrical activity of the cortical part of the brain a reaction of the activity of alpha and beta2 waves. Individual resistance to hypoxia is determined by the characteristics of the reaction of cardiac activity, vascular tone, lower levels of oxyhemoglobin.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):90-93
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EVALUATION OF PROFESSIONAL VIOLATIONS OF DOCTORS IN A NON-STATE EXPERT ORGANIZATION FOR CIVIL AND CRIMINAL COURT PROCEEDINGS
Krasnova A.A., Levunets E.E., Panchuk Y.P.
Abstract
The problems of forensic medical examinations in cases of inadequate medical care are inextricably linked with the experience and qualifications of members of expert commissions. Moreover, the result of such examinations is largely due to the temporary capabilities, status of the expert and other aspects of the expert’s professional activity. Analysis regarding the implementation of examinations in medical matters shows the presence of objective difficulties in their implementation. Our study showed the possibility of evaluating the actions of a doctor in conducting a forensic examination in a non-governmental expert institution, which are important for understanding the fact of legal liability of a doctor or medical institution, especially in establishing causal relationships between a lack of medical care and an adverse outcome. There are sufficient arguments to consider forensic expert activity in a non-governmental expert institution as an important tool in the hands of forensic authorities to resolve issues related to the legal assessment of a doctor’s actions, which can receive evidence with full, comprehensive, scientifically substantiated and reliable formulation of judgments necessary for court proceedings.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):93-96
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THE PROBLEM OF NEW IN MEDICAL RESEARCH
Kuznetsov V.A., Prokudin Y.A., Rumyantseva E.V.
Abstract
The problem of developing views on the concepts of the new and the old in medical research during the post-non-classical science is considered. Today, such categories of philosophy as the old and the new have not ceased to be debatable. From this the problem of understanding the new arises in the framework of medical research. In essence, the new and the old are categories related to the development process and are subject to the criteria of these categories. From the point of view of dialectical negation, development itself implies the interaction of opposites, and in particular the old and the new. This relationship depends on the level of social and scientific development, on this at the stage of post-non-classical science, the relationship of the old and the new have their own characteristics. The post-non-classical stage of scientific development is characterized by characteristic features, expressed in a special type of interaction between the subject and the object of cognition, ideals, norms and values of scientific activity. In fact, we should consider new not just the newly born methods of the trend of medicine, but that which has the basis for further development in its structure, has a wide and undeniable impact on the medical sphere, and is subject to the requirements of post-non-classical science.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):97-98
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MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHANGES OF THE THYROID GLAND IN ITS DYSFUNCTION AND PATHOLOGY
Kucher I.A., Chapliev I.Y.
Abstract
Currently, thyroid dysfunction and pathology are common diseases of the endocrine system. The variety of histological changes in thyroid dysfunction and pathology indicates the complex structure of this organ. The aim of our study was to study the main histological differences in thyroid dysfunction and pathology. We used macro and microscopic examination of the thyroid gland in normal, dysfunction and various diseases, description, analysis, synthesis, and statistics. A wide range of macroscopic and histological features indicates complex architectonics of the thyroid gland with a variety of its functions. When hyperthyroidism vary considerably, evenly or not evenly, increase the size of the body, forming the so-called diffuse, diffuse-nodular goiter, which are determined by changes in the stroma and the parenchyma of the gland with increase the number of follicles, the variety of their shapes and quality of colloid, the change of the follicular epithelium. Hypofunction occurs in autoimmune thyroiditis, the parenchyma of the gland as a result of the action of mainly immune effector cells dies, is replaced by connective tissue and the thyroid gland decreases in volume. Against this background, both in Hyper and hypofunction, new pathological processes arise - benign and malignant neoplasms, which are characterized by the appearance of single or multiple nodes, delimited by a connective tissue capsule and represent a different morphological picture with distinctive histological and cytological features of the follicular epithelium and stroma. Thus, in the case of thyroid dysfunction and pathology, complex ways of transforming its structure occur in it.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):99-101
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DEPENDENCE OF THE METASTATIC POTENTIAL OF A CANCER ON THE DEPTH OF ITS GERMINATION AND LOCAL- IZATION IN COLON CANCER
Likhodkin V.A., Saveliev G.N.
Abstract
Nowadays, despite the success of medicine in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, it remains one of the most common causes of death. One of the most common and dangerous neoplasms is colon cancer (1 million cases annually in the world). Moreover, out of a million, about 600 thousand die in the first year. Clinical cases of colorectal cancer in world practice are characterized by the difficulty of its diagnosis, complicating the appointment of timely treatment, as well as predicting the dynamics of the disease associated with tumor metastasis. At the same time, carcinoma is detected late, because in hollow organs, such as the colon, it does not manifest itself in any way until the stages of the tumor process T3, T4, when the symptoms are intestinal bleeding and obstruction. The aim of the study was to establish the dependence of the metastatic potential on the depth of tumor invasion and localization. Methods used: analysis and synthesis, statistics. A direct relationship was established between the metastatic potential of a colorectal cancer tumor and the depth of its invasion into the intestinal wall (at the stage of the T4 tumor process, metastases spread in 35.7% of cases, and at T3 in 28.5%, respectively). An examination of the protocols revealed the pattern of the predominant distribution of distant metastases to certain organs (liver, mesentery, kidneys) depending on the location of the primary tumor (when the tumor is located in the sigmoid colon, the descending part of the colon, metastasis occurs in the liver (57%), in the kidney (20 %), when located in the cecum - into the soft tissues and organs of the small pelvis (20%).
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):102-104
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DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN AND THE VOLUME OF THE PROSTATE GLAND IN DETERMINING THE CHARACTER OF THE PATHOLOGICAL PROCESS
Magomedov Z.M., Piltoyan D.A.
Abstract
Oncological diseases in the world take the second place in mortality after cardiovascular pathology. In recent decades, experts have noted an increase in the occurrence of prostate tumors among men around the world. Tumors are most often represented by benign hyperplasia and cancer. One of the main criteria for identifying these pathologies in the male population is the level of specific prostatic specific antigen in serum. Currently, a specific prostatic antigen is widely used in the diagnosis of cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia, establishing the stage of the process, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatment. The aim of the work is to assess the diagnostic significance of the level of specific prostatic antigen and volume in determining the nature of the pathology of the prostate gland. As the study are patients of the Clinic of Urology of S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy with diseases of the prostate gland. Studied: age, the nature of the pathology, the level of the specific prostatic specific antigen of blood serum, the volume of the prostate gland. The data obtained showed: the average age of the patients was 69 years; among the studied in 42% of cases diagnosed with prostate cancer, in 58% of cases - benign hyperplasia; in all subjects, the level of this marker and the volume of the prostate are higher than normal (average values are 12,1 ng/ml and 65,2 cm , respectively). The results of this study showed that, having organ-specificity, a specific prostatic antigen and prostate volume are not differential diagnostic criteria for the pathological process. Diagnosis of diseases of the prostate gland should be carried out taking into account a complex of data from clinical, laboratory, radiation and morphological studies.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):104-107
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RELATIONSHIP AND POSSIBILITY OF INTEGRAL ASSESSMENT OF THE APPEARANCE OF THE OCCIPITAL REGION OF THE HEAD OF MEN OF MILITARY AGE
Martynov Y.A., Bozhchenko A.P., Markin A.A.
Abstract
We consider the relationship between the features of a "verbal portrait" that characterize the occipital region of the head. Traditionally, feature complexes do not take into account the relationship of features, which leads to duplication of information (in the case of a strong relationship) and the appearance of "information noise". It is proposed to study the relationship of features and recommend for practical use only those that have a weak or medium strength relationship, which optimizes the method. The study material was photographs of 200 young men of the Caucasian (158) and Mongoloid (42) races aged 18 to 25 years, produced from the back of the head. All the surveyed persons were relatively healthy. Research methods: survey, description, measurement; descriptive statistics, correlation analysis; analysis, comparison, synthesis, deduction; photographic; "verbal portrait" in the original modification (24 stable, unambiguously interpreted signs were recognized). A detailed description of the strength and nature of the relationship between the studied appearance features is given. It was found that the vast majority of the studied appearance features have a weak (19) or medium strength (4) correlation relationship (p < 0.05), which determines the possibility of a cumulative assessment of their identification significance. The obtained data are of value for the theory and practice of forensic identification of an individual based on an unidentified corpse. In addition, they can be used in the forensic practice of establishing the identity of the offender from the data from CCTV cameras.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):107-110
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EXAMINATION OF FUNCTIONAL INDICES OF CADETS IN CONDITIONS OF NERVOUS-EMOTIONAL TENSION
Maslyanyuk V.I., Vorobyov A.A., Alekperov I.M.
Abstract
Comprehensive studies of the functional state of the organism of cadets were carried out mainly in terms of the cardiorespiratory system under conditions of a simulated physiological indicators of the organism of cadets. They are directly dependent. On the quality and time of completion-work, initial-target-setting, self-motivation and attitude quality-performance assignments. It has been reliably revealed that high-nervous-emotional tension leads to a significant change in a number of physiological indicators and a decrease in operator activity. It has been reliably found that high nerve-emotional tension leads to a significant change in a number of physiological indicators and a decrease in operator activity in all examined persons, but to a lesser extent in cadets with a higher level of physical preparation.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):111-112
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CHANGES IN HEART RATE INDICATORS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ANTI-ORTHOSTATIC LOAD
Mitev A.A., Urusova M.S., Yanushko A.G.
Abstract
The aim of the study is to study the compensatory mechanisms of the cardiovascular system under the influence of gravity on the human body. An electrocardiogram and HRV evaluation was performed using a computer electrocardiograph and the Poly-Spectrum program for 5 minutes in each position. We measured the parameters of heart rate variability: HF component, associated with breath movements and influence of Vagus on heart rate, LF component - influence of sympathetic component, VLF - activity of higher brain structures and humoral factors. We transfer the man from horizontal position into antiortostatic to 30° for 5 minutes. We investigated 27 people, maile, 18-22 years old. We used the Pearson correlation Criterion and found that the change in heart rate in the anti-orthostatic position depends more on the speed of conduction through the Atria, but does not depend on the speed of conduction through the ventricles. There is a increase the influence of the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system on the heart rate, and a decrease in the sympathetic component during the transition from the supine position to the upside-down position.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):112-114
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ETIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ISCHEMIC BRAIN INFARCTION
Moiseitsev M.V.
Abstract
Diseases of the cardiovascular system are the main cause of death in the world's population. Among cardiovascular diseases, ischemic brain infarction is the leading cause of death and ranks first in the disability of the population. Thus, according to the National Association for stroke control, only 10% of the population who have suffered a stroke can return to normal life without additional medical and social assistance. The purpose of this study is to study the etiological aspects of ischemic brain infarction based on clinical and morphological studies. Autopsy reports of men who died from ischemic brain infarction with an age range of 58 to 69 years were analyzed. It was found that the main causes of ischemic brain infarction were a combination of factors: arterial hypertension of the 3rd degree with a tendency to hypertensive crises, ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis of the cerebral arteries, whose obliteration varied from 30% to 75%. Acute violation of cerebral circulation often occurred in the right hemisphere in the middle cerebral artery basin, which led to the appearance of a focus of necrosis in the parietal and temporal lobes. At the same time, the clinical manifestations were quite similar - these are sensitive, visual, speech, motor and sensory disorders that have a progressive character. The intensity, severity and prevalence of certain neurological disorders depends on the location and volume of the lesion. The volume of the necrosis focus was in the range of 1.5 to 12 centimeters and correlated with the degree of obliteration of the brain arteries.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):115-117
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REGENERATIVE HISTION OF GRANULATION TISSUE
Nikogosyan V.V., Gorbulich A.V.
Abstract
Cell-differential analysis of a reactively changed connective tissue of the dermis, called granulation tissue, is formed in the phase of proliferation and differentiation of regenerative histogenesis. The experimental preparations of skin sections were studied on the 6th day after the application of a musculoskeletal wound at a light-optical level. The development of the problem of the regulation of the processes of reparative regeneration of connective tissue can be transferred to a new, higher level of targeted stimulation, provided that there is a deep knowledge of inter-differential interactions. New morphometric data on the mechanisms of interaction between cells and intercellular substance of granulation tissue are obtained. The morphological and functional characteristics of cell differentials of granulation tissue were revealed and described: fibroblastic, fibroclastic, mast cell differon, macrophages and structures of angioblastic differon.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):118-120
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ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF INDIVIDUAL DRESSING PACKS
Novikov R.I., Garmashova I.V., Umarov S.Z.
Abstract
Individual dressing pack (IDP) constitute one of the main components in the military first-aid kit of military personnels, being the most important element of the material equipment for assisting the wounded and sick soldiers. Constantly developing new IDP types should fully ensure the provision of medical care at the stages of medical evacuation in accordance with the latest achievements of science and practice. This article discusses to the analysis of IDPs with an expiring shelf life on the subject of packaging integrity and determination of physical-chemical properties such as tightness of the seam, moisture and capillarity of the material. The external inspection of the packages allowed making a conclusion that the packaging material did not lose its functionality after storage during 5 years. To analyze the physicochemical properties, it was used five dressing bags according to GOST 1179-93, an apparatus for determining capillarity and wettability, and a gravimetric method. The tightness of the seam was determined according to GOST 1172-93, capillarity - according to GOST 3816-81, the humidity of the bandage - according to GOST 3816-81. Descriptive statistics of the experimental results was performed. A comparative analysis of the obtained data compared with GOST standards allowed us to conclude that it is advisable to use IDP on the ending shelf life and for a period after the expiration date indicated on the package.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):120-121
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CLINIC-MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF AORTIC ANEURISM OF VARIOUS LOCALIZATION
Novikov I.I.
Abstract
Aortic aneurysm, which is an extension of the aorta by more than 3 cm, can occur in its various departments. Recently, the increase in the number of patients with aneurysms is a huge problem among the population, therefore, the diagnosis of this disease can often be detected only as a result of the development of complications (acute blood loss, pulmonary embolism, pericardial hemotamponade). Knowledge of the clinical and morphological features of the course of the aneurysm of the thoracic and abdominal departments makes it possible to improve differential diagnosis, change the patient’s treatment tactics, in particular, the question of the approach to surgical intervention. A clinical and morphological study of aortic aneurysms was performed, a total of 20 cases, with a study of the frequency of occurrence in different age groups. The most common are abdominal aortic aneurysms (60%), thoracic aortic aneurysms are less common, which are of great interest to specialists in the field of cardiology and cardiac surgery. Symptoms of abdominal aortic aneurysm often mimic abdominal damage and some urological diseases. In contrast, a thoracic aortic aneurysm is accompanied by a sudden-onset clinical picture of cardiovascular disease. Morphological features of the walls of the heart, the membranes of the aorta and other vessels with aneurysm of the abdominal and thoracic aorta are also important in the diagnosis of this pathology. In case of abdominal aortic aneurysm, left ventricular hypertrophy, hemorrhage under the endocardium (Minakov's spots), saccular protrusion of the abdominal aortic wall with stratification of intima and the formation of the “second channel” are noted. If there is a rupture of the wall of the abdominal aorta, then neutrophil subpopulations - “Neutrophilic Extracellular Traps”, NETs - are found in its edge. In case of aneurysm of the thoracic aorta, fibrosis, stenosis and calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, medionecrosis in the aortic wall are noted.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):122-124
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HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE METHOD OF LUMINOSCOPIC ANALYSIS IN RESEARCH- ING THE QUALITY OF OIL AND FAT PRODUCTS
Palshin F.P., Novoselov S.A.
Abstract
This study is devoted to the hygienic assessment of the method for studying the quality of oil and fat products using luminescence analysis. In the course of the work, the nutritional, energy and enzymatic value of the studied product was evaluated; contribution to providing the body with unsaturated fatty acids. An analysis was also made of domestic and foreign literature regarding the effect of palm oil on public health, quality of life and the development of noncommunicable diseases caused by the use of this product in food. The results of the study proved the effectiveness of the luminoscopy method in assessing the quality of fat-containing products and showed that the technology of luminoscopic analysis can be promising.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):124-127
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DETERMINATION OF THE OCCURENCE OF NUCLEAR ANOMALIES IN DANIO RERIO PERIPHERAL BLOOD ERYTH- ROCYTES DEPENDING ON THE DOSE OF IONIZING RADIATION
Pankratov A.A., Privalov M.P., Livanova A.A.
Abstract
Ionizing radiation induces double-stranded breaks in the DNA structure, following by the formation of dicentric chromosomes. With the passage of subsequent postradiation mitoses, dicentric chromosomes are unevenly distributed to the poles of the cell, as a result of which nuclear anomalies of various types are formed, distinguishable at the light-optical level. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of nuclear anomalies in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of freshwater fish Danio rerio after exposure to ionizing radiation, as well as to assess the possibility of using these organisms as model animals in radiobiological studies. To determine the frequency of occurrence of nuclear anomalies in peripheral blood erythrocytes of freshwater fish Danio rerio, fish were exposed to X-ray radiation at doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 Gy. 48 hours after irradiation in fish peripheral blood erythrocytes by light microscopy, four types of nuclear anomalies were identified: micronuclei, nuclear protrusions, nucleoplasmic bridges, dumbbell-shaped nuclei. The frequency of detection of micronuclei and nuclear protrusions was found to be dose-dependent (r = 0.9245, p < 0.05 and r = 0.9062, p < 0.05 respectively), while the appearance of nucleoplasmic bridges and dumbbell-shaped nuclei did not correlate with the dose. More than that, the frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear protrusions detected after irradiation of fish at doses of more than 4 Gy (4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 Gy) significantly differed from the control values. Thus, Danio rerio can be used as a laboratory test system for radiobiological research, for example, to determine the effect of the developed radioprotectors and radiosensitizers, despite the extreme radioresistance of these organisms. It is advisable to use micronuclei or nuclear protrusions as cell markers, given, however, that the identification of these markers will allow detecting radiation exposure only in doses above 4 Gy.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):128-131
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PHYSIOLOGICAL AND REPARATIVE REGENERATION OF HAIR ROOT EPITELIOCYTES
Petrov V.D., Mirgorodskaya O.E.
Abstract
The physiological and reparative regeneration of epithelial cells of human and mouse hair roots was studied at the level of light microscopy. Comparison and analysis of longitudinal and transverse sections of hair roots at different levels. Reactive cell changes in the area of the hair follicle were identified and described. The cyclic activity of hair growth and sources of cambial cells of hair follicles were studied. At the stages of catagen and telogen (stages of stunting and dormancy during physiological regeneration), reduction of cells of the internal root sheath is noted. During reparative regeneration, only reactive changes in these cells were observed. During physiological regeneration at the catagen stage, mitoses of the cells of the external epithelial sheath are usually localized, and during reparative regeneration they are visible around the entire circumference of the hair follicle. It was shown that the state of epithelial cells of hair roots, especially cell of hair matrix, allows more accurate orientation within the perinecrotic area of the wound on the skin surface.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):131-133
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THE COMPENSATORY ABILITIES OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE OF THE HEART WITH VALVULAR DEFECTS OF ELDERLY MEN
Protasov K.N., Shikhmagomedov K.M., Mukagov M.G.
Abstract
Currently, mortality in the Russian Federation from cardiovascular disease occupies the first place. Valvular defects are found in more than 25% of the elderly. The causes of acquired valvular heart defects can be: atherosclerosis, rheumatism, infectious endocarditis, heart injuries, etc. Mitral heart disease accounts for an average of 60% of all heart defects. The aim of the study was to study the compensatory abilities of the left ventricle with mitral, aortic heart defects with stenosis and insufficiency, as well as in combination. General scientific methods were used: analysis, systematization, processing of materials by the variational-static method, generalization. Compared with normal mean heart mass and left ventricular wall thickness in elderly men with no pathology, it was noted that an increase in heart mass and left ventricular wall thickness correlates with the presence of mitral or aortic heart disease. The change in the phenotype of the heart is a morphological sign of a compensatory reaction of the heart muscle to an increased load by volume and pressure, expressed by myocardial hypertrophy of the walls of the heart chambers. The values of the adaptive capacity index of the heart (the ratio of the thickness of the left ventricular myocardial wall to the mass of the heart) were introduced for mitral and aortic malformations, as well as in their combination. High index values were determined with combined valvular heart disease. The connection between the functional indicators of the heart and the adaptive ability index is established. The values of the ejection fraction are inversely proportional to the value of the adaptive capacity index of the heart, which is due to a decrease in the force of contraction of the heart muscle in the late stage of decompensation.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):134-136
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MORFOMETRIChESKIE KhARAKTERISTIKI KOSTNOGO TAZA U OBEZ'YaN I ChELOVEKA
Puzhalov I.A., Semyonova A.A.
Abstract
The study of the characteristics of the pelvis and its development during evolution is of great importance for understanding the phylogenetic pathway of man. In the functional aspect, the human pelvis performs several functions at once: the center of gravity is localized in it, pelvis is a kind of bone “receptacle” for internal organs, and also acts as a support belt with the help of a strong and complex ligamentous apparatus and specially developed powerful muscles, including our movement. To understand how the structure of the bone pelvis changed during the transition to upright posture, we performed a morphometric study of the human pelvis (male pelvis) and three primates (males): gibbon, anubis, and rhesus monkey. Both standard and non-standard sizes were measured, and many of the data presented are published for the first time, which indicates a relatively low degree of coverage of the issue in the scientific community. In addition, the longitudinal-transverse index of exit from the pelvis and the latitudinal-altitude index of the pelvis were calculated. These indicators, in essence, are the link between the other morphometric parameters, since their value does not depend on body size. The study revealed trends in various morphometric characteristics of the pelvis, primarily due to the gradual transition of human ancestors to upright posture: based on the obtained values, it can be concluded that changes in the parameters of the pelvis in humans and primates vary greatly depending on changes in body position in space. A comparative analysis of the measurements presented in the article showed a significant increase in humans.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):137-140
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METABOLIC SYNDROME SIGNS IN KIDNEY STONE DISEASE. CAUSES OF DEATH
Putiatina A.I., Scorobogatov V.V.
Abstract
According to several population studies, the prevalence of urolithiasis in the world is from 3.5 to 9.6%, manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in the general population are found in 14-39% of cases. The frequency of occurrence of pathology data has a strong upward trend. Epidemiological data indicate a more frequent development of urolithiasis in patients with manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study is to study the manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis and the causes of deaths. The autopsy protocols of the deceased suffering from urolithiasis with clinical epicrisis data were analyzed. The metabolic syndrome in the cases considered was established according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and supplemented by the presence of clinical manifestations and morphological changes in organs and tissues. In most cases (70%), there were clinical and laboratory manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis, more often in men aged 39-90 years. A pathological study determines its indirect signs: abdominal and visceral obesity, systemic macro and microangiopathy with predominant damage to the kidneys and heart, fatty liver. The metabolic syndrome in urolithiasis contributes to the formation of pathogenetically related metabolic disorders, systemic macro- and microangiopathy, which leads to a generalization of the purulent process in the kidneys against the background of immunodeficiency. The cause of deaths was multiple organ failure due to urosepsis. In the group without manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (30%), among men aged 57-71 years, complications and causes of death are caused by the development of myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):140-143
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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CONIFEROUS EXTRACT
Rymar V.V., Unachev D.A.
Abstract
Traditionally, preservatives have been used in cosmetic products to prevent bacterial contamination. Some opportunistic microor- ganisms of the genus Corynebacterium living on human skin have become drug resistance because of what new alternatives are needed. A potential candidate is a coniferous extract (СЕ) with antibacterial activity. Methods. The susceptibility of C. xerosis and C. flavescens was evaluated using the serial dilution method in plain broth and beef-extract agar-agar. The lowest concentration of СЕ, which completely suppressed growth, was rated as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial effect of СЕ was evaluated after exposure to bacteria for 30 minutes, 1, 3, and 24 hours at concentrations of 0; 3,5; 7; 15; 30; 125 and 500 μg / ml. Results. MIC, which inhibited the growth of C. xerosis in plain broth ranged between 15 and 60 μg / ml, and for C. flavescens 60 μg / ml. MIC, which inhibited the growth of C. xerosis, ranged from 60 to 125 μg / ml, and for C. flavescens it was 125 μg / ml. The growth of all C. xerosis strains was inhibited after a 30-minute exposure to 500 μg / ml СЕ. Bacterial growth was not inhibited at 125, 30, 7, and 3.5 μg / ml, but a decrease in the number of colonies was observed compared with the control. C. flavescens growth was not inhibited at any concentration, but a decrease in the number of colonies was observed compared with the control. The growth of all C. xerosis strains was inhibited after a 1-hour exposure to 500 and 125 μg / ml of СЕ. Compared to the control, a decrease in the number of colonies was observed at СЕ concentrations of 30, 7, and 3,5 μg / ml. C. flavescens growth was inhibited after a 1-hour exposure to 500 μg / ml СЕ. Compared with the control, a significant decrease in the number of colonies was observed at a concentration of СЕ of 125 μg / ml. The growth of all strains of C. xerosis and C. flavescens was completely inhibit- ed at 500 and 125 μg / ml after 3 hours of exposure to СЕ. One strain of C. xerosis was also inhibited at an СЕ concentration of 30 μg / ml and a decrease in the number of colonies was observed at a concentration of 7 and 3,5 μg / ml compared to the control. C. flavescens growth was not inhibited at an СЕ concentration of 30, 7, and 3,5 μg / ml, although a decrease in the number of colonies was observed compared with the control. Strains of C. xerosis and C. flavescens did not grow after 24-hour exposure to СЕ concentrations of 500, 125, 30, 7, and 3,5 μg / ml. Conclusion. СЕ can be used as an alternative antibacterial agent in the manufacture of cosmetic products.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):143-146
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ANALYSIS OF THE KNOWLEDGE ASSESSMENT OF CONSCRIPTS IN MILITARY MEDICAL TRAINING
Ryaboshapka K.V., Skakunova T.Y.
Abstract
Military medical training classes are conducted with all categories of military personnel within the framework of the combat training plan of the military unit. The main task of military medical training is to teach the rules and techniques for carrying out simple measures aimed at eliminating life-threatening consequences. First aid is provided by military personnel as self-and mutual aid in injuries, bleeding, poisoning, frostbite, bites of poisonous snakes and spiders. Based on the statistics of incidence of this military unit for the previous year and taking into account climatic conditions, locations and branch of troops, plans are created to conduct training in giving first aid at the prehospital stage of medical evacuation. The purpose of the study is to assess the dynamics of the assimilation of knowledge and practical skills on first aid issues based on the analysis of testing of the newly arrived replenishment battalion before and after the training session in the theoretical and practical form of military medical training. When analyzing the level of knowledge of 27 conscripted military personnel before and after training sessions, there is a significant tendency to increase the number of correct answers (p=0.00430) after training. When evaluating the dynamics of test data for a category of questions that have high difficulties in learning the material received, more hours are required for training sessions. From this we can conclude that it is necessary to improve programs for military medical training with the subsequent assessment of the knowledge obtained by testing in order to increase the quality and speed of care at the pre-hospital stage.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):147-149
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VARIANTS OF THE STRUCTURE OF SOME BONE STRUCTURES OF THE OCCIPITOATLANTOAXIAL COMPLEX
Salakhbekov I.S., Tvardovskaya M.V.
Abstract
Morphoscopic and morphometric studies of bone structures of the occipitoatlantoaxial complex were performed. The shapes and sizes of the large occipital opening, the vertebral opening of the Atlas, and the articular surfaces included in the studied complex are determined. The work was performed on the materials of the craniological and osteological collections of the Department of normal anatomy of the Military medical Academy. S. M. Kirov. Based on the visualization method, identical forms of articular surfaces on the condyles and pits of the Atlanta lateral masses were identified: oval, with rounded anterior and posterior poles, diamond-shaped and sinuous, and also in the form of an asymmetric eight with fragmentation phenomena. A program of measurements was made based on morphoscopy materials. The maximum longitudinal and transverse dimensions of all six joints of the complex (right and left) were determined. The measurement data were processed using the variational statistics method.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):150-152
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THE EXPERIMENTAL EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF RESPIRATORY THERAPY FOR TOXIC PULMANORY EDEMA IN ACUTE INTOXICATION WITH PYROLYSIS PRODUCTS OF FLUOROPLASTICS
Sizova D.T., Chaykina M.A., Sizov A.S.
Abstract
Pulmonotoxicants are the substances causing structural and functional disorders of respiratory system. During thermal destraction of polytetrafluoroethylene, a highly toxic perfluoroisobutylene is produced, its inhalation effects lead to the development of acute pulmonary edema and death in injured. In the study, it was found that the inhalation effect of pyrolysis products of fluoroplast-4 (containing perfluorizobutylene) on laboratory animals leads to lung damage. Macro - and microscopic changes characteristic of toxic pulmonary edema with a predominance of the alveolar component were noted. Increasing of (p<0.05) alveolar macrophages and neutrophils was noted at the analysis of bronchial-alveolar lavage fluid, what indicates the development of the inflammatory process. Inhalation use of oxygen-helium mixture for 6 hours after influence, led to increasing the average life expectancy of laboratory animals (p=0,013). During the analysis the magnitude of the lung coefficient of animals withdrawn from the experiment 6 hours after intoxication, there was a decrease in the pulmonary coefficient (p=0.03) compared to animals that did not receive treatment (6,8 and 9,6 respectively). The experimental findings can be used for further efficiency evaluation of the use of oxygen-helium mixture for the correction of toxic pulmonary edema caused by intoxication with perfluorizobutylene and other pulmonotoxicants.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):152-156
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SUBSTANTIATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF PREPARATION AND COMPOSITION OF DENTAL GEL WITH FURACILINE AND LIDOCAINE
Saushkina A.S., Degtyannikov V.P., Dvurechensky E.V., Posevin I.I.
Abstract
Currently, most of the materials and medicines used to provide dental care are produced by foreign companies. Within the framework of foreign medicines substitution program, the development and implementation of less expensive and quite effective dental medicines of domestic production are relevant. In order to expand the range of dental medicines, the composition and technology of a dental gel with analgesic, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects are substantiated. Furacilin and lidocaine hydrochloride with correspondingly expressed antimicrobial and local analgesic are selected as active substances for the complex effect on the inflammatory process of the gums. As possible gel bases, solutions of natural and semi-synthetic origin in various concentrations were studied: methyl cellulose (MC), gelatin, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as the most harmless and affordable high molecular weight compounds (HMWCs). Anhydrous glycerin and polyethylene oxide-400 (PEO-400) were used as plasticizers in an amount of 4% to 5% by weight of the gel. The results of the bioavailability study made it possible to select gel-forming bases for further studies. These gel-forming bases provide the optimal degree and rate of active substances release, as well as those with sufficient sedimentation stability and spreading ability.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):157-161
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DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LIDOCAINE HYDRO- CHLORIDE AND FURACILIN IN DENTAL GEL
Saushkina A.S., Degtyannikov V.P., Dvurechensky E.V., Posevin I.I.
Abstract
Based on previous study, the results of substantiating the composition and technology of a dental medicinal gel containing furacilin and lidocaine hydrochloride for the treatment of oral cavity were developed. This report presents the results of the development of methods for standardizing a dental medicinal gel containing furacilin and lidocaine hydrochloride. Based on the studies, chemical reactions are proposed that allow the authenticity of furacin and lidocaine hydrochloride to be established with the joint presence in the gel. The developed methods are characterized by ease of implementation, reliability of results, sensitivity of reactions and exclude the separation of ingredients. Methods for the quantitative determination of active substances in a gel are developed on the basis of studying the absorption spectra of furacin, lidocaine hydrochloride and the polymer base in the range from 200 nm to 400 nm. It was found that the optimal method for quantitative determination by spectrophotometry for a given composition of a drug is a combination of the isolated absorption method for furacilin and the calculation method for lidocaine hydrochloride. This combination of spectrophotometry options allows to conduct the quantitative determination of both gel ingredients in the joint presence without prior separation with a relative error for furacilin (99.9 ± 0.9)%, lidocaine hydrochloride (101.0 ± 1.6)%.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):161-164
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GENDER FEATURES OF HYPOXIC RESISTANCE OF CADETS AND STUDENTS
Serova D.A., Krasnoperova D.V., Alekperov I.M.
Abstract
We studied the changes in indicators of 10 female students and 10 male cadets with varying degrees of physical fitness, determined by the results of test loads. Hypoxia resistance was assessed by quantitative indicators of changes in blood oxygenation level in combination with the Ruffier-Dickson test and the Stange test. These indicators were studied depending on the individual values of VC and the Erisman index. Significant individual differences were found in boys and girls in absolute values of VC and, at the same time, the absence of significant differences in the Erisman index. At the same time, the level of decrease in oxyhemoglobin in girls was less compared to military personnel, obviously, this can be explained by a more pronounced motivation during the test with hypoxic resistance of cadets. In both groups of examined individuals, the indicators of the functional reserves of the cardiorespiratory life support system did not statistically differ and testified to the high adaptability of the body to physical activity.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):165-166
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INTERCONNECTION FUNCTIONS OF ENDOTHELIUM WITH LABARATORY INDICATORS OF SEVERE PATIENTS
Sinelnikov S.N., Agadzhanyan O.S., Naturalnikov I.O.
Abstract
Pilots and representatives of other professions related to operator activities, during the performance of their work, are fully mobilized for adaptation resources. This is due to the high tension of flight work, when several aerobatic systems and indicator panels immediately require active attention. The activities of the visual analyzer, the implementation of search and motor functions and the distribution of attention of pilots in the course of their work are some of the subjects of study of aviation and space medicine. This work is intended to identify the relationship between the psychological characteristics of the studied cadets and their characteristics of the distribution of attention using the stationary aitracking technique according to the Schulte table. Using the data obtained, it is possible to make rationalization proposals in the ergonomic support of the flight process, in the criteria for the professional selection of candidates of this group of professions.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):166-170
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THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE IN EPILEPTIC FOCI IN PHARMACO-RESISTANT EPILEPSY
Sukhovaia A.I., Pimonov D.A., Zabrodskaya Y.M.
Abstract
Search for the cause epilepsy of the occurrence and the development of new methods and means for relieving of seizures with prolonger, and ideally, lifelong remission are of ufmost important for neurologists today. Modern research is devoted primarily to the study of humoral immunity i9n pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. The aim our scientific study is to detect reactions of cellular immunity in the fragments of the temporal lobe in epileptic foci removed during the surgical treatment of pharmaco-resistant epilepsy in 11 patients with epilepsy from 2 to 15 years. The study was carried out with the help of immunohistochemical sample with antibodies to CD45 (total leukocyte antigen), CD3 (T-lymphocytes), CD8 (T-killer), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), CD68 (macrophages) (DAKO, Denmark).As a result our work, we discovered that, positive expression CD45 was found in all (100%) cases. In addition, using CD45 verified microglial cells. The comparison group served fragments of the temporal lobe of the brain from 5 patients who died without the diagnosis of epilepsy. In the comparison group cellular reaction was revealed in 2 from 5 cases, T-lymphocytes giving 100%. Microglia was not detected. The appearance of cells of immune system indicates damage of the integrity of blood-brain barrier and inflammatory response in epileptic foci. Thus, the appearance of cellular immunity reactions is essential and affects the course of epilepsy and its progress. Further study of the reaction of cellular immunity can become a source of solutions of many questions about the causes and methods of treating this disease.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):170-173
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VARIANTS OF DIVERGENCE OF ANTERIOR BRANCHES OF EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY
Temircheva V.V., Kozyulin M.M., Goyacheva I.A.
Abstract
Purpose to study options for divergence of the anterior branches of the external carotid artery and the relationship of their branches on the shape of the neck. The study was conducted on 20 corpses of men whose neck shape was determined using the Sozon - Yoroshevich method. The levels of divergence of the branches the external carotid artery and their topography were studied. It was found that the divergence of the branches is variable relative to the bifurcation of the carotid artery and each other. We can assume that there is a certain relation between the level of divergence of the anterior branches and the shape of the neck. But for final conclusions it is necessary to increase the number of observations.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):173-175
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DEVELOPMENT OF THE APPROACH OF MULTICOMPONENT SOLID DOSAGE FORMS’S IDENTIFICATION BY MEANS OF RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY EXEMPLIFIED BY “PANADOL” SOLUBLE TABLETS
Tihonova V.V., Saushkina A.A., Shul’c I.S.
Abstract
Raman spectroscopy is an express non-destructive physicochemical method of analysis which has an application as an analytical tool is possible in the pharmaceutical and related fields. The current state pharmacopoeias of the Russian Federation (XIV edition), Belarus (2 edition), Ukraine (2 edition), USA (USP 38), the European Pharmacopoeia (9.8 edition) include general pharmacopeial monographs describing the possibilities of Raman spectroscopy in relation to drugs’ identification and quantification. However, nowadays there is only one pharmacopeial monograph describing the application of Raman spectroscopy as a method for controlling the completeness of the Dissolution test. Taking into account such capabilities of the method as the analysis of small quantities of the test object without preliminary preparation of the test object and obtaining spectral information from the far-infrared region that is impossible with other available pharmacopeial methods the study was carried out aiming to develop an approach for analyzing the composition of complex solid dosage forms. The approach for identifying some solid multicomponent dosage forms by Raman spectroscopy using visual interpretation of spectral data have been developed exemplified by model mixtures proportionally reproducing the composition of the soluble Panadol tablets, both completely and in combination with the main component of paracetamol with each of the excipients, The developed approach has been established to be a useful technique for reliable determination of the combination of substances’ presence in the model mixture by the characteristic features of the spectral picture and hybrid signals. Also, developed approach let to establish the presence of minor components in the composition of the sample.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):175-181
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ANTI-FUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ACTINOMYCETES ALLOCATED FROM THE SURFACE OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Khaziev A.A., Ryabova O.B., Kazakova E.A.
Abstract
The need for the use of antifungal drugs has increased significantly due to an increase in the prevalence of mycoses, due to the increased number of patients with immunosuppression. The introduction of new antifungal drugs, and, therefore, a preliminary study of the topic, expands the possibilities of treating fungal infections. Actinomycetes are the producers of most antimicrobials, among the drugs available on the market. Objective: to determine the antagonistic relationship of actinomycetes isolated from the surface of the roots of medicinal plants with pathogenic fungi of the mycelial and non-mycelial structure. The tasks were set: 1) to study the antagonistic activity of actinomycetes in relation to pathogenic fungi; 2) to identify active strains of actinomycetes for further study of the composition and mechanisms of action of their metabolites; 3) determine the best method for studying antagonistic activity; 4) to consider the stability of biologically active substances synthesized by actinomycetes in the presence of positive antagonistic relationships. The study of antifungal activity against yeast fungi was carried out by 2 methods: “perpendicular lines” and “blocks”, in order to identify the best. In a parallel study using the “block” method, we studied the duration of the activity of actinomycete metabolites, for which we measured the diameter of the growth suppression zone around the blocks for 1 week. The activity of actinomycetes against mycelial fungi was determined by the block method. All studies were performed in duplicate. Results: 1) of the 16 studied strains of actinomycetes, antifungal activity in at least one test culture was detected in 9 isolates, which is about 56%; 2) the best method of study was the "block" method, which allowed to identify 50% of the antagonists among the studied strains, while the "line" method, which is only 19%; 3) the most active actinomycromycetic isolate was the strain Streptomyces sp. with an index of 3-PP.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):181-186
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INFLUENCE OF SOLUTION COFFEIN TO WORKING MEMORY AND MOVEMENT ACTIVITY OF RATS
Chukhno S.D., Lesova E.M.
Abstract
There are researched the influence of solution sodium coffein-benzoat to working memory and movement activity of rats. Research is conducted using study methodic of animal spatial thinking “radial labyrinth” suggested by American scientist D. Olton in author modification. There are engaged 18 white rats. They explored radial labyrinth twice for 6 min: before and after injection of drug (400 mg of sodium coffein-benzoat with 10 min exposure). Received data evidence about statistic significant decrease of motor activity of rats.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):186-188
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DIAGNOSTICS OF HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS USING «LINE-BLOT HHV-PROFILE-IG G»
Shvets Y.V., Malyshev V.V.
Abstract
As the test material was taken the blood serum of patients from the St. Petersburg research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology named after Pasteur. The aim of the work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the use «Line-Blot HHV-profile-IgG» reagent kit for the detection of herpes virus infections. Diagnostics was carried out using the linear immunoblotting method, which made it possible to detect specific antibodies simultaneously to several pathogens, as well as to differentially evaluate the contribution of each antigen to existing humoral immunity. The result of the study was the conclusion about the effective use of this method for the rapid diagnosis of herpes virus infections.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):188-192
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VALIDATION EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR DETERMINING FLAVONOIDS IN BASILIC GRASS
Shevchenko I.D., Dukkardt L.N., Markova O.M., Hartyunova E.I., Saushkina A.S.
Abstract
Nowadays the study of medicinal herbs is still relevant due to its milder effect, less toxicity and ability not to cause addiction and allergies. The object of the study was the herb of the Ocimum basilicum which is widly used in folk medicine. It is known that it contains a variety of biologically active compounds: flavonoids, tannins, essential oil, anthocyanins, macro- and microelements, organic acids. Water extracts from Basil herb are used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, appetizing stimulant, tonic for problems of the gastrointestinal tract, upper respiratory tract, inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, etc. In order to use the Ocimum basilicum’s herb in official medicine, it is necessary to develop regulatory documentation that allows to evaluate its quality in accordance with the pharmacopeial requirements for medicinal herbs raw material. One of the many quality indicators of medicinal herbs raw materials is the quantitative content of the main biologically active compounds determines its pharmacological effect. We suppose, that flavonoids are such marker compounds for Ocimum basilicum’s herb. The paper presents the results of a validation assessment of the method for quantitative determination of the amount of flavonoids in the Ocimum basilicum’s herb, developed by differential spectrophotometry based on the reaction of complexation with aluminium chloride. As the validation characteristics of the developed methodology, the criteria of linearity, precision and accuracy are used.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):192-195
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PERIODONTOLOGICAL ASSISTANCE IN THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND PROSPECTS FOR ITS IMPROVEMENT
Sheenko L.I.
Abstract
The provision of periodontal care is one of the most urgent problems of military dentistry due to the widespread prevalence of inflammatory diseases periodontium in the military. Chronic generalized periodontitis ranks first place among all periodontal tissue diseases. To date most cases of treatment of chronic generalized periodontitis in the military unit is reduced to tooth extraction, which leads to a partial absence of teeth and the need for orthopedic treatment. It is necessary to improve the provision of periodontal assistance in the dental offices of the military unit, namely preference tooth preserving techniques. The purpose of this study is to improve the delivery of periodontal care in military medical organizations (subunit). In study used statistical methods of data processing to provide periodontal assistance based on reports of the Main Military Medical Administration Form 3/MED for the period 2012-2018, as well as data from medical records for outpatient admission to Dental Clinic of the Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov and Form 2/MED for 2017-2019. A simulation method was also used rational provision of periodontal care in dental offices military unit. According to the results of the study, it was found that the main method of treatment chronic generalized periodontitis in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation - tooth extraction, other periodontal operations are extremely rare, on the contrary, at the dental clinic of the S.M. Kirov most often used methods aimed at eliminating periodontal pockets. In the dental offices of military units should be held complex individualized treatment aimed at the rehabilitation of pathological foci using minimally invasive surgery in combination with professional oral hygiene and pharm therapy. Equally important is learning personal oral hygiene and information on preventive measures for inflammatory periodontal tissue diseases.
Russian Military Medical Academy Reports. 2020;2(S1):195-199
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